Sign In | Register

JIAAP Abstracts 2000

Appraisal of stress and coping behaviour in college students .
Rao K; Moudud S; Subbakrishna DK, National Institute of Mental Health & Neuro Sciences (NIMHANS), Bangalore
2000 Jan- Jul; 26(1-2): 5-13

Appraisal of stress and coping behaviour were examined in a group of 258 male and female undergraduates. Stressors in the academic and interpersonal domain were presented in the form of situation vignettes. While both situations were perceived as a challenge, majority of the students appraised the academic stressor (failure in an examination) as being within their control and the interpersonal stressor (break in a relationship) as being beyond their control. Gender differences were not significant for appraisal. For both stressors, the coping responses reported were a combination of problem and emotion-focused strategies including support utilization. In response to the academic stressor, students reported the use of self-blame and reading guide books, while in response to the interpersonal situation ‘withdrawing to think things over’ was more common. Gender differences in the use of emotion focused coping were present. Females preferred distress-reducing strategies and social support utilization, while males reported active behavioural methods including high-risk coping behaviours.

KEYWORDS: Controlled Trials/MT; Stress/PC; Behaviour; Problem-Solving; Human; Adult

References: 18

Models for stress at family-work interface and intervention .
Sharma R,M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara.
2000 Jan-Jul; 26(1-2): 15-24

Using empirically based generalizations cited in literature, a conceptual framework and a stress model is synthesized to understand stress in family and at work, and its mechanism of transfer across family-work interface. The model considers the family, work and individual as three primary interacting domains. Based on the stress model an integrated three module intervention model is formulated. In Module-1, intervention is set at both individual and organization levels. At individual level people are trained to change their life styles to minimise stress related situations and at organization level remedial action is taken against stress inducing work settings. In Module II, intervention is planned for employees and their families in an outside work setting. The group is made to appreciate significance of each other’s work, responsibilities, hazards, and consequences of failure or success. They are also taught stress management techniques. Module III focuses on family-specific problems.

KEYWORDS: Stress; Absenteeism; Family; Intervention Studies; Human

References: 24

Life stress and some personality variables : A comparison of working woman and housewives
Patiraj Kumari; Singh AP, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi .
2000 Jan-Jul; 26(1-2): 25-31

This study investigates possible differences in life stress, anxiety, locus of control, Type A behaviour and personal efficacy of working women and housewives. Data from 105 working women (lecturers, factory workers, nurses) and 75 housewives are analyzed. The life Changes Experience Survey, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Social Reaction Inventory Jenkins Activity Survey and Personal Efficacy Scale were administered to the subjects. Statistics applied in this study were coefficient of correlation, mean, standard deviation and the test of the significance of difference. The analysis identified a number of differences between working women and housewives regarding their life stress, state-trait anxiety, locus of control, Type A behaviour and personal efficacy. The differences were found to be significant beyond the 0.05 and 0.01 levels.

KEYWORDS: Stress; Anxiety; Personality Tests; Women, Working; Internal-External Control; Behavior; Sampling Studies; Data Interpretation, Statistical; Human; Female

References: 22

Anger, anxiety and type a behaviour as determinants of essential hypertension and coronary heart disease
Sehgal M, Punjab University, Chandigarh
2000 Jan-Jul; 26(1-2): 33-39

This investigation into the realm of health-sickness prevention-was planned to study the role of anger, anxiety, hostility, irritability and Type A behaviour pattern in Essential Hypertension (EHT) and Coronary Heart Disease (CHD). Three groups of subjects (hundred each) belonging to the above mentioned groups i.e., EHT, CHD, plus a healthy group were included as subjects. Standard internationally recognised instruments were used and the earlier work was thoroughly surveyed so that a cross-cultural perspective could be evolved.

KEYWORDS: Coronary Diseases/DI; Coronary Diseases/EP; Tuberculosis/DI; Ischemia/DI; Myocardial Infarction; Hypertension; Nutritional Status; Statistical Distribution; Human

References: 23

Depression, social anxiety and appraval motive patterns of narcotic drug addicts-comparison with relapsed and abstinent
Mitra G; Mukhopadhyay A, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi
2000 Jan-Jul; 26(1-2): 41-45

The study aimed to explore the differences in level of depression, social anxiety and social approval motive components among drug abusers (N=41), relapsed (N=35), abstinent (N=6) and normals (N=35). Level of depression and social anxiety components (SAD and FNE) were found to be high among the drug addicts with low social approval motive when compared with normals. Reassessment of factors for the relapsed group was observed with higher depression, social anxiety and lower social motive patterns while a reverse result has been obtained for the abstinent group. Mean differences have been checked by student ‘t’ and ‘t’ by correlated means. Depression factor was found to be significantly high for the drug addicts (p<.01), and in second measure of the relapsed group (p<.01) and a significantly low in the retest results for the abstinent group. SAD of social anxiety was also found to be significantly high for the above groups (p<.01). Social approval (SA), social responsiveness (SR) and normative behaviour (NB) reported to have improved after the addicts succeeded in abstaining from drug use. Social conformity on the contrary was observed to be significantly low and dependency significantly high among the drug addicts.

KEYWORDS: Substance-Related Disorders/DI; Substance-Related Disorders/TH; Substance-Related Disorders/PC; Drug and Narcotic Control; Anxiety; Statistical Distribution; Human; Male; Adult

References: 17

Posttraumatic stress disorder like symptoms in breast cancer patients
Khalid R; Gul A, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
2000 Jan-Jul; 26(1-2): 47-55

It is generally believed that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) like symptoms are experienced by individuals diagnosed for life threatening illness. The present study investigates the presence of PTSD like symptoms in women diagnosed for breast cancer. The sample consisted of 50 women suffering from breast cancer, who had undergone mastectomy. PTSD checklist-specific version (PCL-S), the Impact of Event Scale (IES) and 20-item Medical Outcome Study questionnaire (MOS) were administered to the patients individually. The results support the view that the women who are unmarried and received more extensive and aggressive type of cytotoxic treatment are more likely to experience PTSD like symptoms. It was also found that stage of the disease and quality of life were predictors of PTSD like symptoms in women after mastectomy. The implications of the results for the treatment of women after mastectomy were discussed.

KEYWORDS: Stress Disorders,Post Traumatic/DI; Breast Neoplasms/DI; Breast Neoplasms/TH; Breast Neoplasms/SU; Mastectomy; Amputation; Regression Analysis; Human; Female

References: 18

Longitudinal study of anxiety in cancer patients before receiving chemotherapy
Kausar R; Iiyas F, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
2000 Jan-Jul; 26(1-2): 57-63

The present study examined anxiety experienced by cancer patients before first three administration of chemotherapy. It was hypothesized that anxiety in patients would increase over successive administrations of chemotherapy. The sample consisted of 32 cancer patients who had been recently diagnosed and were to receive only chemotherapy as a treatment. The State Trait Anxiety Inventory (A-State Scale) was used to assess anxiety. The patients were interviewed at the hospital premises. Paired-test analysis was carried out to compare anxiety experienced before different administrations of chemotherapy. The findings revealed that anxiety in patients increased over course of treatment. Findings highlight the importance of provision of psychological help for patients receiving chemotherapy.

KEYWORDS: Anxiety; Carcinoma/DT; Leukemia/DI; Leukemia/RT; Drug Therapy/AD; Human

References: 27

Psycho-behavioural impact of mastectomy
Khan MA; Sehgal A; Mitra AB, Institute of Cytology & Preventive Oncology (ICMR)
2000 Jan-Jul; 26(1-2): 65-71

For many women, mastectomy for breast cancer not only carries the threat of death due to the disease, but also disfigurement which shakes the very core of her feminine orientation. This study was undertaken to evaluate the psychological effect among women who underwent mastectomy for breast cancer. Psycho-social problems following mastectomy are related to anxiety, fear, social withdrawal, changes in body image, sexual problems of perceived acceptance and rejection. These problems are studied in the present study. The importance of psycho-social support and effective counselling during rehabilitation is stressed.

KEYWORDS: Breast Neoplasms/DI; Breast Neoplasms/SU; Mammography; Sexuality; Breast Neoplasms/PX; Mastectomy/MT; Human; Female

References: 27

Yogasanas in psychotherapy
Krishna Rao PV,Andhra University, Visakhapatnam
2000 Jan-Jul; 26(1-2): 73-75

Despite the recognition of the relevance of the system of yoga to psychotherapy, an indigenous psychotherapeutic paradigm based on yoga is yet to be emerged. The paper examines the nature of yogasanas (body postures) from a psychological stand point. It appears that asanas which are body maneuvers may give exercise to various tissues, organs and organ systems of the body and provide an avenue to deal with character armours, attitutes and tensions to bring about healthy changes in several psychopathological conditions.

KEYWORDS: Yoga; Psychotherapy; Psycophysiologic Disorders/TH; Meditation; Posture; Breathing Excercises; Human

References: 11

Targeted and nontargeted effects of treatments
Sud A; Prabha I, H.P. University, Shimla
2000 Jan-Jul; 26(1-2): 77-86

The effectiveness of cognitive as well as relaxation therapies were respectively determined on the non clinical sample of high school subjects, differentiated in terms of worry and emotionality trait scores of the TAI-H. Both high and low test anxious subjects were selected. The treatment related changs were not expected from low test anxious. However, besides the therapeutic changes for high test anxious, non targeted therapeutic effects were observed for test low anxious on anagram performance and general anxiety levels, which were maintained till the follow-up. Discussion and implications for future research have been put forth.

KEYWORDS: Anxiety/HI; Anxiety/PX; Cognitive Therapy; Training Support; Statistical Distribution; Human; Female; Child

References: 36

Intuition or Logic : Their place in Psychological
Chittranjan ND, Department of Psychology, MS University, Baroda
2000 Jan-Jul; 26(1-2): 87-94

The paper highlights a disquitening trend in teaching and research of scientific psychology in this country. Three basic issues are raised (i) Who is at fault when students do not come to classess and teachers do not teach, (ii) Does logic has relevance for scientific enquiry, and (iii) The place of logic in our research designs and experimentations. It is indicted that there are multiplication of factors causing the neglect of teaching making it a political rather than scientific question. A plea has been made to train our students in logical thinking and awareness while dealing with research designs and experimentations. Certain other suggestions have also been made,for example, roles of ‘Null-hypothesis’ and ‘hypotesis’ in research. In author’s view, these are some fundamental issues which every psychologist, psychological organizations and psychology medias should passionately address.

KEYWORDS: Logic; Intuition; Human; Adolescent

Sex differences : Correlates of rorschach measure of hostility
Singh S; Singh D, Gurunanak Dev University, Amritsar
2000 Jan-Jul; 26(1-2): 95-101

Group Rorschach measure of hostility was administered and scored through content analysis for hostility, along with tests of personality, motives and copying styles, to 500 (250 boys; 250 girls) adolescents. Boys and girls differed quantitatively and qualitatively on Rorschach measure of hostility. Hostility as measured by Rorschach is a unidimensional construct, a concept at variance with much current thinking. The results also provide ample support regarding the usefulness of Rorschach as a measure of hostility for both boy and girl samples. Furthermore, the findings suggest that it is an over simplification of these data to refer to an individual as possessing high hostility without further specification of its kind and quality. Additionally, the findings also reveal that gender variable could influence factorial similarity and differences, yet such variables are seldom mentioned in factor analytic studies.

KEYWORDS: Anxiety; Hostility; Social Isolation; Weight and Measures; Rorschach Test/IS; Data Interpretation, Statistical; Human; Adolescent

References: 34

Are you likely to ingratiate in a context you are unfamiliar with?
Vohra N, Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad
2000 Jan-Jul; 26(1-2): 103-107

Explored the influence of knowledge of situation on ingratiation among Canadian and Indian subjects living in Canada and India respectively, and Indian students studying abroad. It was hypothesized that the Indians studying abroad would be least conversant with their context and would thus be least likely to ingratiate. Ingratiation tendencies were measured using a paper-pencil test developed by the author. It was found that there were no significant differences between the ingratiation scores of Indian and Canadian students studying and living in their respective countries but the Indians studying abroad had much lower scores on ingratiation. The significance of these findings for those working in foreign cultures is discussed.

KEYWORDS: Self Concept; Individuation; Human; Adult

References: 9

Perceived family environment : A study in relation to economic status of family
Patel MK, Saurashtra University, Rajkot
2000 Jan-Jul; 26(1-2): 109-114

The objective of the present investigation was to study the differences and similarities with respect to various areas of family environment as perceived by adolescents belonging to lower, middele and upper economic strata. A sample of 526 students of class 8th, 9th and 10th were selected from the various schools of Rajkot city. Out of total sample 191 students belonged to lower economic strata, 190 students belonged to middle economic strata and 145 students belonged to upper economic strata. Hindi adaptation of Moos (1974) Family Environment Scale by Joshi and Vyas (1996) and Personal Data Sheet were administered to the selected students. Significant differences were observed between lower and middle economic groups and between lower and upper economic groups with respect to various areas of family environment such as cohesion, expressiveness, conflict, independence, organization and control. However, close similarities were observed between middle and upper economic groups with respect to various areas of family environment such as expressiveness, conflict, achievement orientation, intellectual cultural orientation and moral religious emphasis.

KEYWORDS: Family; Personality Development; Exploratory Behavior; Social Adjustment; Statistical Distribution; Human; Adolescent

References: 27

Perceptions of social supports among the aged women
Ushasree S, S.V. University, Tirupati
2000 Jan-Jul; 26(1-2): 115-118

In later ages women are in double jeopardy. They are marginalised first by their gender and next by their age. Lack of proper formal social supports that are available in developed countries, jeopardise the ageing women in the third world countries further from another angle. The present study attempts to examine the social supports perceived by 600 middle aged, old and old-old women from different localities, social and economic levels.

KEYWORDS: Family; Social Support; Perception; Women; Statistical Distribution; Human; Female; Aged

References: 8

Age deficits in discourse processing
Gupta A; Srivastava SK, University of Delhi, Delhi
2000 Jan-Jul; 26(1-2): 119-123

The study attempts to examine whether there is age decline in discourse processing efficiency. Forty young and 40 elderly males and females were compared on processing of verbatim and inferential information contained in the episodes presented through headphones. The results indicated a significant decline in verbatim as well as inferential processing in the aged. While the main effect of gender was not significant, the elderly females performed significantly better than elderly males and young males performed significantly better than young feamles. Processing was significantly better for simple than for complex episodes. The findings are interpreted in terms of slowing processing rate and deteriorating capacity of the elderly for registration, integration and reorganization of spoken materials.

KEYWORDS: Semantic Differential; Human

References: 9

Familial variables and type-A behaviour pattern
Tung S; Verma P, Gurunanak Dev University, Amritsar
2000 Jan-Jul; 26(1-2): 125-128

The present study is concerned with the investigation of the familial influences on Type-A behaviour pattern. 101 male and 99 female students were administered the Hunter-Wolf Type-A scale and information pertaining to the birth order, maternal employment, parental education and family set up (joint or nuclear) was collected from them. Chi-square analysis was done separately for males and females. Results reveal that Type-A behaviour pattern in females, is influenced by the father’s education and Type-A behaviour pattern in males is influenced by the mother’s education and the joint family set up. A significant sex difference was found on the Type-A behaviour scores.

KEYWORDS: Health Care Facilities, Manpower, and Services; Coronary Diseases; Behavior; Parent-Child Relations; Chi-Square Distribution/MT; Sex Characteristics; Human; Child

References: 13

Living in urban environment and leaning toward external locus of control orientation
R. Regani, Osmania University, Hyderabad
2000 Jan-Jul; 26(1-2): 129-133

This study investigated the interactive effects of urban density, as measured by the number of persons living per acre, the noise level, size and structure of urban dwellings. 441 children in the range of 7 to 12 years in age were drawn from the twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad in Andhra Pradesh, a Southern State of India, 229 children were from high density areas and 212 children were from low density areas. 298 of them were from independent homes and the rest (n=143) were from apartments in multi-storied buildings. The 34 item questionnaire designed to measure children’s Internal-External Locus of Control was administered to them. On this test developed by Crandall et al. (1965) a score of 1 to 17 is considered to indicate Internal Locus of Control. To evaluate the difference between the mean scores on the Locus of Control test of children living in high density and low density areas the inferential statistics, t-Test was applied. Statistically significant differences were found between them. However, no significant differences were observed between children living in independent houses and apartments. The relevance of these finding were discussed in the context of Seligman’s (1975) consideration of External Locus of Control as one of the dimensions of Learned Helplessness.

KEYWORDS: Crowding; Stress; Internal-External Control; Human; Child

References: 12

Ranking general aptitudes for success in computer programming
Name (?), Indian Statistical Institute, Calcutta
2000 Jan-Jul; 26(1-2): 135-139

Present study was designed to estimate rank values of nine general aptitudes for success in computer programming. Data were collected from 32 experienced computer programmers. Kendall’s Co-efficient of concordance indicated moderate ‘within group’ homogeneity. It was noted that aptitudes concerned with reasoning faculties possessed rank values lower than hypothetical median value indicating their greater importance. Whereas those more concerned with skills possessed rank values higher than the hypothetical median value indicating their relatively lesser importance. Relative rank status of different aptitudes in the context of effective programme writing was discussed.

KEYWORDS: Generalization (Psychology); Software; Data Collection; Human

References: 32

Closer look on the behavioural inhibition system and personality inter-relationship
 :A psychophysiological study
Mukhopadhyay P; Mukhopadhyay S , University College of Science and Technology, Calcutta
2000 Jan-Jul; 26(1-2): 141-146

Hundered normal adult female subjects, with age ranging between 20 and 28 years were investigated in this study, in order to find out the relationship between skin-conductance (SC), RT of electrodermal activity (EDA) and personality characteristics. The EDA and it’s RT, and 16 PF were employed to assess one’s psychophysiological and personality characteristics respectively. The results of the two criterion groups revealed that the high SC-RT group showed the personaltiy characteristics basically defined by high loading of neuroticism (N) and introversion (I), whereas, the low SC-RT group was characterised by the presence of impulsivity, low anxiety and relatively less superego strength. The personality characteristics have been and explained in term of one’s state of arousal and ability to free herself from prior excitation as reflected on recovery time of SC.