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JIAAP Abstracts 1999

Daftuar CN, M. S. University, Baroda
1999 Jan-Jul; 25(1-2): 1-10

The paper is like a critique of certain popular trends is psychology. It revolves around the basic theme that this branch of science made big mistakes in the past and as a consequence the growth of psychology as a science could not reach the level as it should have. To grow in the future, say, in the next century or beyond in the third millennia, psychology will evolve on basically four foundations, namely, (i) it will seek to correct the mistakes it has committed in the past; (ii) will seek to evolve around new themes at more advanced levels of understanding human minds; (iii) there are possibilities of getting into more of spiritually oriented researches and Parapsychology may fast catch up (in popularity and status as a science) with other branches of psychology; and (iv) psychology will evolve as a science of humans and their consciousness from a science of behaviour. The paper discusses the above dimensions.

KEYWORDS: Psychology; Research; Psychophysiology; Parapsychology; Spiritualism; Human Experimentation; Behaviour; Space-Time Clustering; Energy Metabolism; Emotions; Affect; Regression (Psychology); Activities of Daily Living; Personality; Self Examination; Human; Male; Female; Child; Adult

Influence of the ICDS on psychosocial development of rural children in southern India
Vazir S; Kashinath K., Department of field studies National Institute of Nutrition (ICMR),
1999 Jan-Jul; 25(1-2): 11-24

The study examined the influence of the non-formal preschool education provided by the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) on the psychosocial developmental skills achieved by the beneficiaries aged 3 to 6 years of age residing in rural areas of the three Southern Indian states. To maintain the blind nature of the study, children from the same villages who were found not attending the ICDS Programme when the data were decoded were treated as controls. These children were matched for ages and micro-environmental backgrounds during analysis. Results indicated achievement of significantly higher motor and mental age scores by ICDS beneficiaries at all ages (36-72 months) compared to non-ICDS controls. Younger beneficiaries obtained motor and mental age scores comparable to their chronological ages unlike older beneficiaries who lagged behind by 6-7 months. Even undernourished beneficiaries (36-72 months of age) performed significantly better and attained higher scores compared to their well nourished counterparts among the controls. These results underline the importance of multifaceted intervention during preschool years. The study findings recommend the upgrading of the preschool education programme for older children (49-72 months) who attend the ICDS as a prelude to formal schooling.

KEYWORDS: Educational Measurement; Child Development; Child Care; Child Welfare; Child Nutrition; Rural Population; Social Support; Motor Skills; Mental Processes; Socioeconomic Factors; Data Collection; Human; Male; Female; Child, Preschool

References: 23

Job related stress, social support and trait anxiety among school teachers
Sud A; Malik AK., H. P. University, Shimla
1999 Jan-Jul; 25(1-2): 25-33

In the present study, the effect of three variable combination of job stress, social support and trait anxiety has been studies for school teachers, by treating trait anxiety as an independent variable. Along with many other findings, emergence of clear correspondence between co-workers support and provision of reassurance of worth, ensures the moderating effect of co-worker’s support for Indian teachers. The implications of these findings for the development of stress reducing programmes for teachers have been putforth.

KEYWORDS: Psychology, Education; Stress Psychological; Social Support; Anxiety; Teaching; Workload; Staff Development; Personality; Social Environment; Regression Analysis; Students; Salaries and Fringe Benefits Questionnaires; Data Collection; Students/PX; Human; Male; Female; Adult

References: 37

Good news about role stress (s)
Chattopadhyay I; Dasgupta SK., University of Calcutta, Calcutta.
1999 Jan-Jul; 25(1-2): 35-38

This is an empirical verification of the common belief that married female executives, have to juggle between different roles, so they are more stressed and less satisfied with their jobs than their single counterparts. 47 executives, (27 married, 20 single) of age within 20-40 years working in different private organizations in calcutta were subjects. Efforts were made to control educational and economic status. They were administered Pareek’s Organisational Role Stress Scale and Warr et al’s job Satisfaction Questionnaire and responded to a brief open-end interviews. ‘t’ test revealed no significant difference between the groups in perceived role stress (s) or job satisfaction. The main stressor for both the groups were Inter role distance and Time interference. Both the groups had moderate role stress (s) and moderately high job satisfaction.

KEYWORDS: Role; Stress, Psychological; Women, Working; Social Conditions; Workload; Job Satisfaction; Marital Status; Comparative Study; Human; Female; Adult.

References: 11

An investigation into the relationship between psychological stress and health
Srivastava AK., Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi.
1999 Jan-Jul; 25(1-2): 39-43

The study conducted on a sample of 210 male subjects from middle-class urban population, revealed that psychosocial stress experienced by the subjects significantly correlates with their emotional responses, symptoms of neuroticism, maladaptive and pathological behaviour and somatic pathologies ( psychosomatic diseases). It was also observed that various forms of psychological and behavioural problems significantly associate with somatic pathologies.

KEYWORDS: Psychology, Experimental; Stress, Psychological; Urban Health; Emotions; Adoption, Psychological; Mental Health Somatoform Disorders; Chi-Square Distribution; Human; Male; Adult

References: 11

A Comparative study of organisational role stress amongst managers of government, public and private sectors
Mohan V; Chauhan D., Punjab University, Chandigarh.
1999 Jan-Jul; 25(1-2): 45-50

Optimum stress is essential for performing well in one’s job. It acts as a drive and can be called Eustress. But once stress exceeds a certain limit it can cause burnout and detrimentally affect work performance. The present study was conducted on 174 middle level managers from Government (50), Public (76) and Private (48) sectors. There were 137 males and 37 females. Overall, the latter were very less in number. These managers were administered Organisational Role Stress (ORS) Scale by Udai Pareek. A t-test was done to find sex differences, if any, on the 10 subscales of ORS and the total score. None of the t-ratios were significant, as such the data was pooled. Simple ANOVA were done for all the 10 subscales and total ORS scores to test the differences amongst the three sectors. The results showed that there were only two significant F-ratios-for Role Erosion and Self-Role Conflict. The managers of Public Sector experienced the maximum Role Erosion and Self Role Conflict, followed by Government and the private sector. The private sector seems to have a better work climate which is giving enough forward orientation in one’s job role and also less amount of intra-personal conflictual situations. This can have implications for improvement of work climate in Government and Public Sector.

KEYWORDS: Role; Stress, Psychological; Government; Public Sector; Private Sector; Efficiency, Organizational; Analysis of Variance; Workplace; Data Collection; Questionnaire; Human; Male; Female; Adult; Comparative Study

References: 15

Integration of personality as a moderator variable of the intrinsic job satisfaction-occupational stress relationship
Mehra G; Mishra PC., University of Lucknow, Lucknow.
1999 Jan-Jul; 25(1-2): 51-55

In the present study an attempt was made to explore the potential moderator effect of integration of personality on the intrinsic job satisfaction occupational stress relationship. The mental health inventory developed by Jagdish and Srivastava, the S. D. Employee’s Inventory developed by Pestonjee and Occupational Stress Index developed by Srivastava and Singh were administered on a sample of 250 blue-collar industrial workers of Uptron India Ltd., Lucknow. The sub-group analytical strategy and moderated Multiple regression analysis were applied for determining the moderating effect of integration of personality on the relationship of intrinsic satisfaction and occupational stress. Moderated regression analysis confirms that integration of personality has a moderating effect on the intrinsic job satisfaction- occupational stress relationship.

KEYWORDS: Personality; Job Satisfaction; Stress, Psychological; Mental Health; Work/PX; Regression Analysis; Data Interpretation, Statistical; Human; Male; Adult

References: 20

Self-efficacy, stress and health: A cross-gender perspective
Sehgal M. Department of Psychology, Punjab University, Chandigarh.
1999 Jan-Jul; 25(1-2): 57-60

The inequality is not a mere political or social condition between the sexes. The basic health status and stress levels give very interesting picture of these differences. The present study attempted to compare the self efficacy, stress and health status between college going boys and girls. The higher scores of boys on self-efficacy and stress and almost equal scores on well being in comparison to girls have very subtle meaning for the specialists working in health management and training.

KEYWORDS: Self Efficacy; Personality; Stress, Psychological; Health Status; Gender Identity; Human; Male; Female; Adolescence; Comparative Study

References: 14

Locus of control as determinant of organizational role stress
Malik AK; Sabharwal M. J. N. V. University, Jodhpur.
1999 Jan-Jul; 25(1-2): 61-64

The present study was carried out to analyze the relationship between role stress and locus of control. Sample consisted of 200 senior subordinates of Nationalized Banks. The two tests, viz. Organizational Role Stress and Rotter’s IE scale were administered individually to each subject. Results were analyzed by computing correlation between Locus of Control and ORS. Results were further analyzed by extreme group analysis. Results indicate that externally controlled subjects perceived more stress in three areas viz. Role expectation conflict, Role overload and Role ambiguity.

KEYWORDS: Internal-External Control; Stress, Psychological; Public Sector; Role; Workload; Personality Data Interpretation, Statistical; Human; Male; Adult

References: 7

A study of impact of age on job involvement and organizational commitment of nationalized and co-operative bank employees
Patel MK. Department of Psychology, Saurashtra University, Rajkot.
1999 Jan-Jul; 25(1-2): 65-70

KEYWORDS: Age Factors; Job Satisfaction; Efficiency, Organizational; Employee Performance Appraisal; Occupations; Behavior; Motivation; Human; Male; Female; Adult; Middle Age; Aged; Comparative Study

References: 19

Social Support as related to organizational commitment of supervisors
Vashishtha A; Mishra PC. Department of Psychology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow-226007
 (U.P.), India.
1999 Jan-Jul; 25(1-2): 71-74

The study explores the relationship between social support and organizational commitment of supervisors. It was conducted on a sample of 200 supervisors employed in Scooters India Limited, Lucknow, (U.P.). The General Population Form of Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL) developed by Cohen, Mermelstein, Kamarch and Hoberman and the Organizational Commitment Scale developed by Meyer and Allen were administered on the sample of supervisors. The result confirms that social support has a positive and significant relationship with the organisational commitment of supervisors.

KEYWORDS: Social Support; Psychology, Social; Evaluation Studies; Personnel Loyalty; Employee Performance Appraisal; Human; Male; Female; Adult

References: 15

Job characteristics and demographic variables as predictor ofjob involvement of textile mill workers
Naaz H., Institute of objective studies, Post Box-9725, Jamia Nagar, New Delhi 110025
1999 Jan-Jul; 25(1-2): 75-78

Hackman and Lawler (1971) identified four of the Turner and Lawrence (1965) requisite task attributes (RTA) as core characteristics of job that would allow individual to obtain meaningful personal satisfaction from the job itself. These four facts were:- Autonomy, Task identity, Feedback & Skill variety. The Present investigation was carried out to examine the effects of each of the job characteristics and certain demographic variables (salary & chances of advancement) on job involvement. 362 workers from a textile mill located in an industrial city of U.P., comprises the sample, A scale developed by Naaz and Akhtar. (1993) was used to measure the job characteristics. Job involvement was measured with the help of Lodahi and Kejner’s (1965) adopted version. Standard & stepwise regression analysis was applied to analyze the data. Results indicate that only one job characteristics i.e. skill variety was found to be significant predictors of job involvement, Stepwise regression analysis revealed that Task identity alongwith skill variety emerged as predictors of job involvement.

KEYWORDS: Job Satisfaction; Industry; Occupations; Employee Performance Appraisal; Task Performance Analysis; Personal Satisfaction; Feedback; Salaries and Fringe Benefits; Regression Analysis; Workplace; Data Interpretation, Statistical; Human; Male; Female; Adult

References: 15

Job satisfaction, job and work involvement among the industrial employees: A correlational study
Joshi G. Department of Psychology, Saurashtra University, Rajkot.
1999 Jan-Jul; 25(1-2): 79-82

The present study investigates the relationship between the age, job experience, monthly income and educational level of the industrial employees of public and private sector, with their Job satisfaction, Job involvement and Work involvement. The study also aimed to investigate the relationship between Job satisfaction, Job involvement and work involvement. The sample consisted of 165 and 121 employees of various levels from public and private sectors undertaking respectively (N=286) located in Rajkot. The product moment correlation was used. The study revealed that employees’ age, job experience and monthly income were significantly associated with their job involvement and work involvement. Employees’ monthly income was found to be significantly correlated with job satisfaction. It was also found that employees’ job satisfaction and job involvement are significantly associated. Further, the results indicate that though employees’ work involvement and job satisfaction were not significantly related but they have inverse relationship.

KEYWORDS: Job Satisfaction; Work/PX; Occupations; Employee Performance Appraisal; Age Factors; Income; Educational Status; Public Sector; Private Sector; Human; Male; Female; Adult

References: 20

Peer nomination as a diagnostic tool
Hariharan M., Academic Staff College, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad.
1999 Jan-Jul; 25(1-2): 83-89

Peer rating has been in use for various diagnostic purposes. Its reliability level was found to be high. Peer nomination/rating is used to identify and classify children on the basis of competence and their socio- economic background. The study screened and identified 112 children on the basis of peer nomination. Peer rating of their various competence levels and self- perception of the socio-economic background well coincided with the peer nomination.

KEYWORDS: Peer Review; Child Behavior; Mental Competency; Socio Economic Factors; Social Class; Self Concept; Students/PX; Teaching; Psychology, Educational; Data Interpretation, Statistical; Human; Male; Female; Child

References: 12

Construction of children’s learning styles inventory
Dangwal R. R & D Centre, NIIT Limited, New Delhi.
1999 Jan-Jul; 25(1-2): 91-98

In today’s world there is tremendous heterogeneity in the learner population, "the teaching-learning process" becomes crucial. This paper is an attempt to develop a test, which measures how children learn, It describes the design, construction and validation of the test suitable for children ranging from the age group of 5 to 15 years. It is a pictorial test supported by text and is considered to be relevant for children and can be extended to uneducated, illiterate children also. The test is found to be highly reliable and valid.

KEYWORDS: Psychology, Educational; Learning; Child Development; Child Guidance; Child Psychology; Teaching; Audiovisual Aids; Visual Perception; Schools; India; Personality Tests; Reproducibility of Results; Human; Male; Female; Child, Preschool

OTHER KEYWORDS: Child; Adolescence

References: 7

Questionnaire to measure psychological barriers to technological change
Ghani KA; Sugumar M. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical Teachers Training
 Institute, Chennai.
1999 Jan-Jul; 25(1-2): 99-108

Manufacturing industries in which technological change is the thrust have introduced Advanced Manufacturing Technology (AMT). In those firms where AMT has been implemented, the real benefits remain modest. This is attributed to reasons, which are mainly the human barriers among operational level employees that arise in most periods of change. Review of literature and interactions with manufacturing firms identified 10 conceptual factors. Forty eight items generated under these factors formed a questionnaire, which was administered to 100 operational level employees in three firms. A principal factor analysis extracted 10 factors that mostly reproduced the conceptual factors. The instrument formed had 37 items on these factors and yielded accepted reliability coefficient of alpha 0.66-0.82. the percentage of psychological barriers was computed for the three firms across age, qualifications and occupation of operational level employees. Descriptive analysis of the results supports the hypotheses. Key word: Advanced Manufacturing technology.

KEYWORDS: Questionnaires; Work/PX; Psychology, Industrial; Technology; Factor Analysis, Statistical; Age Factors; Occupations; India; Workload; Job Satisfaction; Efficiency, Organizational; Human; Male; Female; Adult; Middle Age

References: 16

Patient’s care scale: A measure of peoples perception towards the system
Yousuf SMA. Division of social Psychology; A. N. Sinha Institute of Social Studies, Patna.
1999 Jan-Jul; 25(1-2): 109-117

The patient care scale consists of 44-items. The sample comprised of 154 patients and/or attendants of five units. The results indicated that the mean item score is 1.46 with a SD of 0.47. After correction for attenuation, the split-half reliability indices for a-priori clusters are: human relation of doctors.69, human relation of nurses.62, human relation of supportive staff and others.63, provision of medicine, food, and nutrition.08, state of sanitation. 55, physical facilities.21, perceived satisfaction .75, and grievances .54. The average split-half reliability comes to .51. Thirteen factors emerged after factor analysis which covered 67.2 percent of the total variance. These factors are named as satisfaction with hospital care, delay, humiliation in getting food, annoyance at medicos, negligence in medical care, health and hygienic measures, arrogance of the unit-head, poor medical care and facilities, bad behaviour of nurses, physical facilities, absentee medical staff, facilities, and insensitivity of nurses.

KEYWORDS: Patient-Centered Care; Social Perception; Health Care Surveys; Hospital- Patient Relations; Attitude of Health Personnel; Physician-Patient Relations; Nurse-Patient Relations; Allied Health Personnel/PX; Patient Satisfaction; Factor Analysis, Statistical; Patient Care; Human; Male; Female; Adult

References: 10

Normative and evaluative orientations in a collectivistic society
Reddy KSS; Samiullah S; Reddy VS., Department of Psychology; Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati.
1999 Jan-Jul; 25(1-2): 119-124

Normative and evaluative aspects in a collectivistic society were studied. The sample consisted of 60 men and 60 women of high and low age groups who had post graduate education. The normative and evaluative aspects were assessed using the Cultural Orientation Scale (COS) developed by Bierbrauer. Results revealed that on normative dimension the gender and age differences are not significant. On evaluative dimension gender differences are more pronounced.

KEYWORDS: Orientation; Social Behavior; Psychology, Social; Cultural Characteristics; Educational Status; Interpersonal Relations; Individuality; Analysis of Variance; Data Interpretation, Statistical; Human; Male; Female; Adult; Middle Age

References: 15

Item response theory in organizational psychology: A review
Roy DD., Indian Statistical Institute, Calcutta.
1999 Jan-Jul; 25(1-2): 125-128

Item response theory (IRT) is a relatively new development in measurement of behaviour in the context of organizational issues. This might be due to more importance of IRT on unidimensional trait (ability) than multidimensional traits (attitudes and values). In the context of organization, the multidimensional traits, like attitudes towards job facets, towards organization’s structure and process characteristics (organisational climate, culture and organizational health) have received importance in current literature. Present paper reviewed articles published in the Journal of Applied Psychology, from 1100% to 1996. It was noted that there were few applications of IRT in studying problems of organizational psychology. Some controversies and unresolved problems are examined from a practical perspective.

KEYWORDS: Efficiency, Organizational; Organizational Culture; Psychological Theory; Behavioral Sciences; Attitude; Aptitude; Reference Standards; Human; Male; Female; Adult

References: 3

Impression management behaviour in relation to personality dimensions
Dani V; Helode RD., Department of Psychology, S. N. Govt. Girls Autonomous college, Bhopal.
1999 Jan-Jul; 25(1-2): 129-132

Present study attempts to investigate impression management behaviour of female employees in context of two personality dimensions, i.e., extraversion and neuroticism. Mean difference between total as well as tactic-wise scores are analyzed with the help of ‘t’ test and interactional hypothesis is verified by applying 2x2 ANOVA. results are discussed in terms of situational conditions of the job and Eysenck’s personality theory.

KEYWORDS: Behavior; Personality; Women, Working; Extraversion (Psychology); Analysis of Variance; Work Place; Social Conditions; Social Behavior; Teaching; Emotions; Introversion (Psychology); Human; Female; Adult

References: 11

Real and ideal perceptions of woman and man
Gupta V; Gupta A., Department of Psychology, University of Delhi, Delhi.
1999 Jan-Jul; 25(1-2): 133-138

In the present research, 150 males and 150 females, aged 25-50 years, evaluated the concepts of typical woman, typical man, ideal woman and ideal man on Extended Personal Attributes Questionnaire and a free-response measure. Results indicate that both typical woman and ideal woman are perceived to possess significantly more feminine than masculine traits and both typical man and ideal man are perceived to possess significantly higher masculine than feminine traits. However, trait perceptions of the ideal woman and the ideal man appeared to be somewhat less rigidly sex stereotyped than those of typical woman and typical man.

KEYWORDS: Social Perception; Men/PX; Women/PX; Personality Assesment; Personality Tests; Stereotyped Behavior; Social Behavior; Sex Factors Data Interpretation, Statistical; Human; Male; Female; Adult; Middle Age; Comparative Study

References: 20

Study of behaviour types and basic interrelated factors contributing to pro-activity of private and public sector employees.
Bhatt DB; Patel S. , Department of Psychology, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar
1999 Jan-Jul; 25(1-2): 139-141

Employees of Public and Private Sector organisations (N=80) are compared in this study. Comparison is on basic interrelated factors contributing to ‘Pro-activity’. Four such factors: Security, Guidance, Wisdom, and Power indices are taken into consideration. Private sector officers were found to be on higher side on all the factors, indicating that internal seeds of these factors can sprout in private sector which can lead a person to become pro-active. Significance correlations between components of FEHO-B and AB types. With type A personality FEHO-B components were found to be negatively correlated that pro-activity can foster in type B people rather in type A people.

KEYWORDS: Behavior; Public Sector; Private Sector; Employee Performance Appraisal; Power (Psychology); Type A Personality; Personality Tests; Human; Male; Female; Adult; Comparative Study

References: 6

Psychologist and autocounselling on the academic achievement of university students
Panchanatham N., Annamalai University, Annamalainagar
1999 Jan-Jul; 25(1-2): 143-146

A study was carried out to investigate the role of psychologists in training students for autocounselling and increasing their academic performance. This quasi-experimental study was carried out with a sample of 60 students, dividing them equality into two groups (control and experimental). The experimental group underwent autocounselling training through a psychologist. The data pertaining to the performance of the groups in their university examinations was subjected to analysis of variance test. The result showed that students who practiced autocounselling through a psychologist, fared well in the examinations and scored better marks.

KEYWORDS: Psychology, Educational; Counseling; Achievement; Educational Status; Psychology, Experimental; Conditioning (Psychology); Emotions; Students/PX; Human; Male; Female; Adult

References: 10

A study of personality differences between pupils of sainik and non-sainik schools
Dhila BD; Yagnik LR. Bhavnagar University, Bhavnagar
1999 Jan-Jul; 25(1-2): 147-150

The aim of the study was to investigate the differences in personality structure of male students of sainik and non-sainik schools. A random sample of 160 boys was taken, (eighty boys from each category of school) their age ranged from 11 to 15 years. The children’s personality questionnaire (C.P.Q.) was used to obtain the personality structure of both the groups. Means and SDs were computed and ‘t’ test was applied to check the significance of difference between personality structure of the two groups. Out of fourteen factors of C.P.Q. the students of sainik school had higher mean score on eight factors. (A,B,C,F,G,H,I,Q3); while the students of non-sainik school had higher mean score in case of factors D,E,J,O and Q4. The ‘t’ value showed that the differences were significant on factors G and O at .05 level. While in case of C,D,E,F,N and Q3 the differences were significant at 0.1 level; and for A,B,H,J, I and Q4 factors, the ‘t’ value showed no significant difference.

KEYWORDS: Psychology, Educational; Personality Assessment; Students/PX; Schools; Child Behaviour; Home Nursing; Questionnaires; Data Interpretation, Statistical; Human; Male; Child; Comparative Study

References: 11

The humane component in human factors engineering: An ethical interrogative?
Tuli K., Department of Psychology, Zakir Husain College, New Delhi.
1999 Jan-Jul; 25(1-2): 151-156

Human machine interaction involves various kinds of complexities, which include technical, socio-technical, physical, social, ergonomical, psychological and ethical dimensions of work. At times the work is so consuming that it robs human beings of their abilities to develop in other areas of living (Selye;1974). These are the faulty interactions at work, which lead to such kind of stresses. The present paper focuses on this dire need of the human factors engineers to give their professional and moral support to the work ethics and esthetics, so that human-machine interaction can be reviewed from more humane viewpoint than "cog in a big wheel type approach". This study of 210 machine operators revealed various facets of their interaction with the various machines and the resultant stress cognizance. Various factors of mental health and other variables indicated significant coefficient of correlation at p<.001 level.

KEYWORDS: Psychology, Industrial; Human Engineering; Ethics; Man-Machine Systems; Work/PX; Stress, Psychological; Morale; Behavior; Workplace; Human; Male; Female; Adult

References: 14

Effect of feedback on adaptive automation
Singh IL; Hilburn B; Parasuraman R., Department of Psychology, Banaras Hindu University,
1999 Jan-Jul; 25(1-2): 157-165

Adaptive automation is found to maximize the benefits associated with cockpit automation while maintaining pilot involvement, enhancing situation awareness, and regulating workload. Adaptive automation can produce significant benefits over "static" automation without any performance costs associated with reversion to manual control. The present study examined the effect to feedback on the benefits and costs of adaptive automation. 24 nonpilots were tested on a PC-based flight simulation task consisted of tracking, monitoring, and fuel resource management tasks. Tracking and monitoring could be performed either manually or automatically while fuel management was always performed manually. Subjects received feedback on their performance of the manual tasks either at the end of each block or on-line feedback. In the test sessions an adaptive procedure was simulated by shifting from manual to automatic control, and return to manual control, every 10-minute in three 30-minute sessions. In the automation mode subjects were required to supervise the automated task by noting any irregularity in its control. Automation benefits were assessed by comparing performance in the manual and automatic control blocks, while automation costs were assessed by comparing the manual and return to manual blocks. Adaptive automation benefits on performance were found. Performance improved across blocks. The on-line feedback did not enhance performance in comparison to block feedback. Results confirm that dynamic automation of a task benefits performance compared to manual control, even with the additional workload imposed by the requirement to supervise the automated task.