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JIAAP Abstracts 1997

Najam N; Moss HB; Kirisci L; Tarter RE, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.
1997 Jan-Jul; 23(1-2): 3-12

The present investigation aimed to identify a latent frontal cerebral factor utilizing Neuropsychological tests and to assess whether this factor predicts drug abuse behavior two years later. A sample of 354 children were assigned to High Drug Abuse Risk (N is equal to 139) and Low Drug Abuse Risk (N is equal to 215) on the basis of paternal diagnosis. The subjects were administered the Wisc-III and a battery of neuro-psychological tests at 10-12 years of age and the Drug Use Screening Inventory two years later to document the severity of drug involvement and consequences. Factor analysis of the neuro-psychological and WISC-III scores revealed a latent unifactor indicative of executive conitive functioning (ECF). ECF factor scores at age 10-12 were significantly associated with the Substance Abuse and Leisure and Recreation problems (with trends for Peer Relationship) scores on the DUSI in the High Risk Boys only when measured at age 12-14. These findings extend the emerging literature indicating that poor performance on cognitive tests sensitive to deficits in frontal lobe functions are associated with heightened risk for substance abuse and suggest that familial factors may be important contributors to this risk relationship.

KEYWORDS: Substance Abuse/PC; Substance Abuse/DI; Adolescent Psychology; Psychotropic Drugs; Substance Abuse/EP; Substance Abuse/PX; Social Enviornment; Substance Abuse/RH; Regression Analysis; Risk Factors; Data Interpretation, Statistical; Case Report; Human; Adolescence; Male; Female; Substance Dependence/PX; Cognition Disorders/PX; Socioeconomic Factors; Neuropsycholigical Tests

References: 38

Cognitive deterioration of male drug addicts.
Bannerjee S; Mukhopadhyay A; Shukla V, Arya Mahila Degree College, Varanasi.
1997 Jan-Jul; 23(1-2): 13-18

Present investigation attempted to explore the quality of life, our affected populations are leading. The objective undertaken for the study were to utilize such informations of cognitive deterioration to detect the cases at its earliest phase. Potential impairment of the cognitive level may be utilized as an informative source of addiction and be checked for its proliferation at the root of the community. The sample of study comprised of 96 drug addicted males habituated in tidigesic injection (N is equal to 14), cannabis abusers (N is equal to 22), heroin addicts (N is equal to 30), and alcohol addicts (N is equal to 30). A comparative matched control group (N is equal to 30) was also used to substantiate the outcome. Ravens progressive Matrices measures were used to test the differences in intellectual ability. Ten subscales of memory measures by PGI memory Scale checked the extent of damage among drug abusers. Emotional balance investigated with Bender Gestal Visuo Motor Test. A distinct low score in the intellectual ability was reported for the addicts. Visual and verbal retention and recognition were found to be the major areas of memary dysfunction proving deteriorated cognitive functioning. Except alcoholics the other drug addicts substantiated the emotional maladjustment in terms of mean reaction time comparisons. Thus cognitive impairement may be predicted as an obvious after effect of drug abuse.

KEYWORDS: Substance Abuse/DI; Substance Abuse/PX; Cognition Disorders/DI; Cognition Disorders/PP; Congnition Disorders/PCPsychotropic Drugs; Cognition disorder/PX; Substance Abuse/PC; Socioeconomic Factors; Data Interpretation, Statistical; Case Report; Human; Adult; Male

References: 19

Emotional competencies among chemical dependents and non-dependents :
a compaarative study.
Bharadwaj R; Sharma A, D. S. College, Aligarh, U.P.
1997 Jan-Jul; 23(1-2): 19-22

The present study was undertaken to investigate the basic differences found among chemical dependents and non-dependents as regards to five emotional competencies with a two group design on a sample of 100 male subjects. It is discerned that in comparison to chemical dependents, the non-dependents have greater adequate depth of feelings, adequate expression and control of emotions, ability to function with emotions, and encoouragement of positive emotions. However, it is also noted that no difference exists among chemical dependents and non-dependents as regard to the ability to cope with problem emotions.

KEYWORDS: Substance Dependence/CI; Substance Dependence/CO; Substance Dependence/PX; Emotions; Personality Assessment; Mental Competency; Social Environment; Comparative Study; Human; Adult; Male

References: 14

Attitudes towards drug taking behaviour : a fector analytic study.
Basu D; Malhotra A; Verma VK; Malhotra R, Drug De-addiction and Treatment Centre, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh.
1997 Jan-Jul; 23(1-2): 23-29

Responses from 205 subjects to a 33-item self-report Likert scale for assessment of attitudes toward drug-taking (SAAD-I) were subjected to a principal components factor anallysis with varimax rotation. The resultant 21-item modified version of the scale (SAAD-II) had four factors named "Rejection of drug addicts", "Active endorsement of drug taking", "Passive acceptance of drug taking", and "Drugs more dangerous than alcohol", explaining 11.3 percent, 8.2 percent, 6.9 percent and 5.2 percent of the variance respectively (total variance explained, 31.6 percent). Measures of internal consistency and stability over time both yielded overall satisfactory results. The complex, multi-dimensional nature of attitudes toward drug taking behaviour is emphasized by this study. Also, the scale may be used as a sound psychometric index for measueing such attitudes especially in the care-givers and burden-sharers of drug dependent persons at home.

KEYWORDS: Psychotropic Drugs; Alcoholism/RH; Alcohol Drinking; Substance Abuse/RH; Substance Dependence/RH; Substance Dependence/PX; Socioeconomic Factors; Psychometrics; Factor Analysis, Statistical; Social Values; Risk-Taking; Social Environment; Human; Adult; Child; Adolescence; Substance Abuse/PX

References: 18

Attitude of nurses towards treatment of substance abuse.
Misra AK; Mattoo SK; Malhotra R, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research Chandigarh.
1997 Jan-Jul; 23(1-2): 31-35

Attitude towards treatment of substance abuse was studied in twenty nurses working at a deaddiction centre, using a modified version of Attitude to Treatment Questionnaire. Findings revealed higher intent to share the role of therapist, preference for professional over personal approach, higher acceptance of role of individual psychotherapist, low permissiveness and low belief that treatment may disturb patients. Attitudinal associations emerged between belief that treatment may disturb patient vs. liberal attitude for role of nurse and shorter experience in psychiatry, between intent to share the role therapist and preference for professional over personal approach, and between intent to share the role of therapist and preference for professional over personal approach, and between liberal attitude to treatment methods and rejection of role of individual psychoterapist. Implications of these findings are discussed.

KEYWORDS: Psychiatric Nursing; Substance Abuse/NU; Nursing Assessment; Nurse-Patient Relations; Education, Nursing; Substance Abuse/PX; Substance Abuse/PC; Substance Abuse Treatment Centres/OG; Nursing Methodology Research; Questionnaires; Human; Male; Female; Treatment Out Come; Nurse Practitioners/ED; Data Interpretation, Statistical

References: 19

Relationship of responsibility and academic self concept with drug addiction among university students.
Aziz S; Shah AA , University of Surry Surry, U.K.
1997 Jan-Jul; 23(1-2): 37-41

This study examined difference between addicts and non-addicts with regard to their sense of responsibility and academic self concept. Participants were 45 addicts and 45 non-addicts, males with mean age of 23 years, from Three Pakistani universities in Islamabad, Lahore and Peshawar. The two groups were matched for age, area of residence, education, and marital status. All participants gave their responses on the Responsibility scale of California Psychological Inventory (CPI), and Academic Self Concept Scale (ASCS). Results showed that contrary to nonaddicts, addicts scored significantly lower both on the Responsibility scale and the Academic Self Concept Scale. The findings have been discussed in the social psychological perspective.

KEYWORDS: Psychotropic Drugs; Students/PX; Attitude to Health; Substance Abuse/PX; Substance Abuse/PC; Aptitude; Attitude; Educational Status; Self Concept; Socioeconomic Factors; Socialization; Pakistan; Data Interpretation, Statistical; Comparative Study; Human; Male; Adult

References: 25

A study of drug abuse among students as related to personalityvariables.
Lather AS; Vasudeva P; Verma P, Guru Jambeshwar University, Hisar.
1997 Jan-Jul; 23(1-2): 43-49

The Study was conducted on 142 drug abusers and a control group of 139 non-abusers in the age range of 17-25 years. The subjects (all males) were taken from various colleges and universities of Northern India (Haryana, J and K, Punjab, Chandigarh and Delhi). MPQ was administered individually to the subjects. A 2x2x2 factorial design with unequal numbers was used for the analysis on different personality factors. The differences were significant for all the variables such as anxiety, depression, hysteria, mania, paranoia, psychopathic deviate, repressor sentisizer and schizopherenia. The mean score showed that the drug abusers scored higher on all these personality dimensions. On K (lie) factor, it is the non-abusers who have scored higher than the drug abusers.

KEYWORDS: Substance Abuse/PX; Anxiety/PX; Personalilty; Substance Abuse/DI; Depression/PX; Personallity Inventory; Substance Abuse/RH; Depressive Disorder/RH; Schizo Phrenia; Socioeconomic Factors; Anxiety Disorders/RH; India; Students/PX; Male; Substance Abuse/CO; Case Report; Human; Adult; Adolescence; Risk Factors

References: 27

Psychological factors related to drug dependence.
Jain R; Mehta M; Gautam S, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur.
1997 Jan-Jul; 23(1-2): 51-53

One hundred adult male addicts in the age of range of 18 to 45 years, when compared with equal number of neurotics and normals showed that they were (a) more active, sociable, high risk takers, impulsive, expressive and assertive but (b) less responsible and had poor attitude towards morality in comparison to neurotics and normals of comparable age level.

KEYWORDS: Substance Dependence/PX; Adaption, Psychological; Psychological Tests; Substance Dependence/RH; Neurotic Disorders/PX; Soocial Adjustment; Psychotropic Drugs; Risk Factors; Psychological Tests; Risk-Taking; Case Report; Social Environment; Human; Adult; Male; Comparattive Study; Neurotic Disorders/DI; Substance Dependence/DI; Data Interpretation, Statistical

References: 10

Neurotic problems and feelings of lnsecurity among high and low drug addicts.
Gunthey RK; Jain M, J. N. V. University, Jodhpur.
1997 Jan-Jul; 23(1-2): 55-57

Drug addiction is one of the most burning problems. The present study was conducted on high, low, and non-drug user college students (30 each), 18 to 25 years of age. Security-Insecurity inventory by Tiwari and Singh and Hindi version of Neuroticism Scale Questionnaire by Kapoor and Kapoor were administered. The high and low drug users were found to be extroverted neurotic and to react pathologically to stressful events. Moderate and positive correlations were found between the two scale for the three groups(55 to 67)..

KEYWORDS: Substance Abuse/PX; Behavior, Addictive/DI; Neurotic Disorders/PX; Neurotic Disorders/EP; Substance Dependence/CO; Neurotic Disorders/DI; Depression/DI; Anxiety/DI; Social Environment; Students; Questionnaires; Social Adjustment; Case Report; Human; Adult; Adolescence; Data Interpretation, Statistical

References: 9

Social identity among criminals and drug dependent individuals.
Kodandaram P, National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences Bangalore.
1997 Jan-Jul; 23(1-2): 59-61

Sarbin put forth a Social Psychological model for understanding behavioural dysfunction. This he called ‘Social Identify Model’ is examined with respect to criminals and drug dependent individuals using "conduct Impairment Scale". Criminals and Drug Dependent individuals did not differ on the social identity. Both showed degraded social identity.

KEYWORDS: Social Identification; Social Conformity; Prisoners/PX; Crimianl Psychology; Psychotropic Drugs; Social Values; Substance Dependence/PX; Patient Acceptance of Health Care; Social Environment; Substance Dependence/RH; Case Report; Human; Male; Female; Adult

References: 18

A comparative study of emotional life and subjective well-being in drug addicts
and non-addicts.
Bhojak MM; Nathawat SS; Krishnan S; Ali J , S.M.S. Medocal College, Jaipur.
1997 Jan-Jul; 23(1-2): 63-67

The present study investigated emotional life and subjective well-being in drug addicts and non-addicts. A sample of 30 addicts and non-addicts were selected. They were administered the KSP, psychopathic deviate scale of MMPI. Quality of life scale and two scales of well-being. By and large, drug addicts appear to have distrubed emotional life, more psychopathic traits and poorer subjective well-being as compared to normal controls.

KEYWORDS: Emotions; Substance Dependence/PX; Social Environment; Antisocial Personality Disorder/PX; Substance Dependence/RH; Substance Abuse/PX; Psychotic Disorders/PX; Substance Abuse/RH; Data Interpretation, Statistical; Comparative Study; Human; Adult

References: 17

The quantitative assessment of depression and anxiety among male alcohol dependents.
Singh AR; Ahmad H; Mehta R; Banerjee KR , Ranchi Mansik Arogshala, Ranchi.
1997 Jan-Jul; 23(1-2): 69-71

Alcohol dependent cases during and post detoxification phase were assessed for anxiety and depression. The results of the study indicate that degree of depression and anxiety decreased markedly in detoxified cases after a gap of three months.

KEYWORDS: Substance Dependence/PX; Substance Dependence/RH; Alcoholism/CO; Alcoholism/PX; Depressive Disorder/PX; Alcoholism/PP; Depression; Alcholism/RH; Depressive Disorder/PP; Depressive Disorder/RH; Prevalence; Human; Male; Adult

References: 20

Psychosocial treatment for alcohol abuse disorders : an up-date.
Rangaswami K, Institute of Mental Health, Chennai.
1997 Jan-Jul; 23(1-2): 73-83