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JIAAP Abstracts 1996

Clinical psychology in India.
Verma SK, PGIMER, Chandigarh.
1996 Jan-Jul; 22(1-2): 1-10

Clinical Psychology in India has a relatively short history. As an applied branch of psychology, it is not very old. For a short while, the training of clinical psychology was started in 1951 at Banaras Hindu University, but it really got started with DM and SP (now M. Phil in Clinical Psychology) at Bangalore in 1956. The Indian Association of Clinical Psychologists came into existence in 1968 and the Indian Journal of Clinical Psychology in 1974. At present there are over 600 clinical psychologists working in India. The field is fast expanding and so are the areas of their work. The historical development of the field and the actual role of a clinical psychologists have been discussed at length at many meetings, seminars, review articles, editorials, letters to the editor, etc. An attempt is made here to critically review articles, editorials, letters to the editor, etc. An attempts is made here to critically review the field of clinical psychology in our country and make suitable suggestions for its further development in the future.

KEYWORDS: Psychology, Clinical/HI; History of Medicine, 20th Cent.; India; Psychology, Clinical/ED; Universities

References: 56

Psychological well-being and family integration : a study of retried army personnel.
Sharma S; Singh S; Ghosh SN, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla.
1996 Jan-Jul; 22(1-2): 11-17

The A-Trait Scale of State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Self-Rating Depression Scale, Life Satisfaction Index (as indicators of Psychological Well-Being) and the Family integration Assessment Schedule were administered to groups of 40 retired Army Officers and 40 Other-Ranks. All of them were 60 years and above, married with a living spouse, not reemployed and lived with their families in three districts of Himachal Pradesh. The findings are : (i) The Ex-Other-Ranks reported lower psychological well-being than their Ex-Officers coounterparts : (ii) Family nuclearity or jointness was unrelated to psychological well-being : (iii) Irrespective of family structure (nuclear or joint), the Ex-Officers and Ex-Other Ranks were either ‘Moderately Integrated’ or ‘Well-Integrated’ with their families in almost equal proportions. Thus living in a nuclear family was not seen as a barrier against integration : (iv) the higher degrees of family integration provided non-significant trends towards better Psychological Well-Being, and (v) Unlike ‘well-integrated groups : the ‘Moderately-Interated’ Ex-Other-Ranks reported significantly lower Psychological Well-Being of all its three measures than their Ex-Officer counterparts. However, the scores on the three indicators of Psychological Well-Being (for Ex-Officers of Ex-Other Ranks) were not in pathological ranges. The interpretations for these findings have been provided.

KEYWORDS: Family/PX; Military Personnel/PX; Stress, Psychological; Anxiety/PX; Psychology, Social; Emotions; Quality of Life; Life Change Events; Depression/PX; Nuclear Family/PX; Personal Satisfaction; Case Report; Human; Aged; Male

References: 37

Quality of worklife of managers in Indian industry.
Karrir N; Khurana A, HPCL, New Delhi.
1996 Jan-Jul; 22(1-2): 19-26

The study examines the Quality of worklife of 491 managers from three sectors of industry (Public is equal to 182Privite is equal to 143Cooperative is equal to 166) belonging ot 30 organizations (Public is equal to 12 Private is equal to 9, Cooperative is equal to 9) as related to six background variables (age, educational qualifications, experience, native/migrant status, number of dependents and income level) and three motivational variables (job satisfaction, job involvement and work involvement) using various univariate, bivariate and multivariate statistical techniques. Results have revealed significant correlations of Quality of worklife of managers with some of the background variables (deucation qualification, native/migrant status, income level) and with all of the motivational variables. To arrive at specific results managerial groups have been formed on basis of educational qualifications and income level and ‘t’ test comparisons have been done. Results obtained from comparisons have been discussed.

KEYWORDS: Private Sector; Public Sector; Job Satisfaction; Quality of Life; Workload; Workplace/ST; Industry; Job Description; Quentionnaires; Data Interpretation, Statistical; Human; Sampling Studies

References: 4

Moderating effect of social support in occupational stress-strain relationship.
Banerjee U; Gupta HN, University of Calcutta, Calcutta.
1996 Jan-Jul; 22(1-2): 27-34

In the investigation an attempt has been made to study the moderating effect of social support in the relationship between occupational stresses and strain among male and female occupants. 200 male and female occupants from four different occupations viz., Police Officers, Advocates, Doctors and Clerks were selected on the basis of stratified random sampling method. 25 males and 25 females from each occupation were taken. It was assumed that social support can moderate the relationship between occupational stresses and strains. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the moderating effect of social support by comparing the R^2 values of high and low social support groups split at the quartile point. The result indicates that social support can moderate the relationships between occupational stresses and strains. But the findings of this study did not prove the relationships of social support and stress-strain relations in the way it was expected to function.

KEYWORDS: Stress, Psychological/CO; Occupations; Social Envirument; Job Satisfaction; Occupational Exposure; Social Behavior; Social Support; Police; Workload/PX; Sampling Studies; Data Interpretation, Statistical; Human; Male; Female; Regression Analysis

References: 22

Fractured vs. intact families : differential impact on children.
Ghosh Dastidar P; Kapoor S, Lady Shri Ram College, New Delhi.
1996 Jan-Jul; 22(1-2): 35-41

The present study focuses on the experiences of Indian middle-class children from divorced homes. The hypotheses examined concerned the existence of significant differences in the levels of anxiety, acceptance of self and others, and adjustment, between adolescents from intact homes and those from divorced homes. In addition, the dependence of these variables on gender, in the divorced group, was also studied. Participants were 100 and 15 adolescents intact and divorced families, respectively. They were from urban, middle-class backgrounds in New Delhi. All participants completed questionnaires on anxiety, acceptance of self and others, and adjustment. Teachers of participants in the divorced group were interviewed. Results show that there are significant differences between the two groups on all three variables. However, the extent of difference is not known. No significant gender differences were observed on variables in the divorced group, except on adjustment in masculinity-femininity. This relationship was further examined, and found to be moderate.

KEYWORDS: Gender Identity; Divorce/PX; Child Psychology; Family/PX; Child Welfare; Depression/PX; Child Development; Parents/PX; Parent-Child Relations; Sampling Studies; India; Emotions; Human; Child; Adolescence; Male; Female; Stress, Psychological

References: 30

Differential patterns of state anxiety of scientists during antarctic expedition.
Dutta Roy D; Deb NC, Indian Statistical Institute, Calcutta.
1996 Jan-Jul; 22(1-2): 43-45

Spielberger’s state Anxiety Scale was administered to the Indian scientists across three different periods of Antarctic expedition, namely, onward, stay and return journey from Antarctica. One way ANOVA with repeated measures (45 observations) shows that state anxiety score during onward journey to Antarctica was significantly higher than that of other periods.

KEYWORDS: Cold Climate/AE; Expenditions/PX; Stress, Psychological/PX; Stress, Psychological/DI; Antarctic Regions; India; Research Personnel; Adaptation, Psychological; Data Collection,Statistical; Human; Adult; Male

References: 9

Yoga practice and menstrual distress.
Sridevi K; Rao KPV; Rao K PV , Institute for Yoga and Consciousness Andhra University.
1996 Jan-Jul; 22(1-2): 47-53

Menstrual distress refers to the charaacteristic nagative symptomatology experienced by women over the course of the menstrual cycle. Physiological and psychological treatment measures such as exercise and progressive relaxation are used in the treatment of menstrual disorders. As yoga encompasses the methods for relaxing the minds as well as the body, an attempt has been made in the present study to investigate the effectiveness of certain yogic practices in relieving menstrual problems. Two comparable groups of unmarried women (N is equal to 40) of age range 20 to 24 years were assessed for the number of reported menstrual symptoms with a Menstrual Distress Questionnaire. One group underwent yoga training which involved a regular practice of certain asanas and transcendental meditation (TM) for a period of 10 months, whereas the other group which served as a control had no such training. The results revealed that the yoga trained group obtained significantly lower scores on the subscales of MDQ compared to the control group in both the premenstrual and also menstrual periods. This indicates that the distressing physiological and psychological changes occurring in both the menstrual phases can be successfully reduced with the help of yogic methods.

KEYWORDS: Menstruation Disorders/DI; Menstrual Cycle/PX; Yoga/PX; Stress, Psychological/CO; Meditation; Alternative Medicine; Depression/PX; Relaxation Techniques; Questionnaires; Statistics; Sampling Studies; Human; Female; Adult; Comparative Study

References: 43

Beliefs and the adaptation to a new culture : the case of indian immigrants.
Vohra SS; Broota KD, University of Delhi, Delhi.
1996 Jan-Jul; 22(1-2): 55-64

A cross-cultural research was carried out to compare the belief system of Indian Immigrants in North America with their native counterparts living in India. The sample consisted of 80 North American graduate students and 107 Indian graduate students. The tools included a schedule of belief system developed and standardized by the investigators. It assessed the following dimensions of belief system namely, ‘Perecived Control’, ‘Belief in God’, ‘Religion’, and ‘Superstition’. ‘Yes-No’ type and open-ended questions were included to explore into possible links between the said beliefs and stress. Subjects’ self ratings on superstition were also taken. The results indicate that Immigrant population is higher on the intensity of beliefs than their counterparts in India. Reports by the subjects revealed various stressful life events faced by them in which belief system act as on adaptive/coping strategy, thus, providing a possible link between ‘belief system and stress’.

KEYWORDS: Adaptation, Psychological; Cultural Characteristics; Religion; Cross-Cultural Comparison; Emigration and Immigration; Education, Graduate; Ethuic Groups/PX; India; Sampling Studies; North America; Comparative Study; Human; Adult

References: 20

Beliefs as normative attributions : a study of the cognitive function of beliefs.
Parsuram A; Sharma R, Jesus and Mary College, New Delhi.
1996 Jan-Jul; 22(1-2): 65-71

This study was carried out to test the hypothesis that there exist contigencies in the way certain beliefs are used as attributions for certain types of events. The second aim of this study was to test the universality of belief-selectivity. For this purpose, four religious grooups were selected, viz., Hindu, Muslim, Christian and Buddhist. ‘Target’ beliefs were selected more often than the non-target beliefs, supporting the Belief-selectivity hypothesis. results show that the universality of belief-selectivity is limited to the non-religious beliefs. As far as religious beliefs are concerned, there are variations across cultures in the normative beliefs chosen as causal attributions.

KEYWORDS: Religion; Philosophy; Religion and Psychology; Islam; Christianity; Catholicism; Cognitive Therapy; Sampling Studies; Data Interpretation, Statistical; Hyman; Adult; Male; Female

References: 14

Situational Arousal of Identity Among Muslims.
Hasan Q; Khatoon N, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh.
1996 Jan-Jul; 22(1-2): 73-77

The present study is concerned with the identification of situations that lead to emergence of identity among Muslims. Thirty eight university students were required to indicate in a five point scale to what extent the 20 listed situations arouse religious identity among them. Analysis of data showed that the following situations were highly identity arousing among the Muslim youth. Item No.1 When objectionable statements are given against one’s community when people of one’s own community indulge in prohibited acts. (Item 6) when members of one’s own community are selected in the national team for any kind of sports. (Item No.8) and when members of one’s community win national/international awards.

KEYWORDS: Students/PX; Religion and Psychology; Religion; Islam; Cultural Characteristics; Human; Adult

References: 12

Index of religiosity : the development of an indigenous measure.
Azis S; Rehman G, National Institute of Psychology, Centre of Excellence,
Quaod-I-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
1996 Jan-Jul; 22(1-2): 79-85

This study was designed to develop an indigenous measure named as Index of Religiosity (IR). The reliability, validity and factor structure of IR was examined within the Pakistani context. The subjects consisted of 100 post-graduate students including 40 males and 60 females, who were Muslims and ranged in age from 20 to 30 years. Findings showed that IR is a reliable, discriminating and a valid measure. The item-total correlation led to the selection of 27 items for IR. Principal Component Analysis with oblique rotation was performed to determine the construct validity of the instrument. Three meaningful factors comprising of religious belief, religious doctrines and religious effect emerged.

KEYWORDS: Religion; Religion and Psychology; Students/PX; Islam; Philosophy; Culture; Sampling Studies; Regression Analysis; Pakistan; Human; Male; female; Adult

References: 21

Multidimensionality in gender typing of indian children.
Bhogle S, Bangalore University, Bangalore.
1996 Jan-Jul; 22(1-2): 87-93

Recent research on gender typing has questioned the process and content of gender roles. The concept of Multidimensionality in gender typing has also been proposed. The present study tried to examine the concept of gender typing in the Indian context. A multidimensional assessment of gender roles was done through a semi structured interview format, which assessed the traditionality of children’s gender role flexibility in three domains-activities and interests which assessed toy preferences, activity and interest preferences, future occupational aspirations and future domestic aspirations, gender based relationship and biological gender. The subjects were 240 children at the 6 and 9-year level with an equal number of boys and girls at each age level. Results revealed that gender typing is indeed multidimensional in nature. The inter correlations obtained for the four activities and interests varied in magnitude and direction. Moreover, toy preferenced did not correlate best with the total flexibility score, Factor analyses also indicated the presence of five factors. Thus the results reveal the multidimensionality underlying the concept of gender typing and emphasize that toy preferences which is the usual domin assessed in studies on gender typing may not give a wholistic and realistic picture. Multidimensional assessment of gender roles is therefore useful and highly essential.

KEYWORDS: Gender Identity; Child; Child, Preschool; Sampling Studies; Socioeconomic Factors; Urban Population; Regression Analysis; Religion; India; Human; Male; Female

References: 9

Job attitudes and psycho-social problems of shift and day workers.
Khaleque A; Wadud N, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh.
1996 Jan-Jul; 22(1-2): 95-99

The objectives of the present study were to asses and compare the job attitudes and the perceived psycho-social problems of the male and female shift and day workers. The study was conducted on 60 subjects comprising 30 male and 30 female workers taken from a jute mill and textile mill. To measure the job attitudes and the perceived psycho-social problems of the subjects, the Hoppok job Attitude Blank and the Job related problems assessment questionnaire was used. The results showed that attitudes of both the male and the female workers towards the shift work are more negative (male 44 percent and female 60 percent) than positive (male 23 percent and female 27 percent) or neutral (male 33 percent and female 23 percent). The results further revealed that the female workers dislike shift work adversely affects their social life, disturbs their sleep, restricts their family activities, disturbs regularity of mealtimes, affects health and curtails leisure activities. A comparison between the male and female shows that the female workers experience more psycho-social problems than the male workers. The results indicate that workers’ job attitudes and perceived psycho-social problems depend on a number of favourable and unfavourable specific experience with regard to their working situations.

KEYWORDS: Job Satisfaction; Stres/PC; Work Schedule Tolerance/PX; Work; Socioeconomic Factors; Occupational Health; Women, Working/PX; Stress, Psychological; Data Interpretation, Statistical; Psychology, Social; Human; Male; Female; Workload; Social Conditions; Sampling Studies

References: 9

Effects of education, location and sex-martal status on values of an individual
Gupta S; Mandal JM
, Calcutta University, calcutta.
1996 Jan-Jul; 22(1-2): 101-105

An adapted form of Rokeach’s two value model was administered on 360 respondents with fairly good educational background and respondents with poor educational background of urban and rural areas. In the total sample, 120 were unmarried women, 120 were unmarried men and 120 were married men. Two 3x2x2 factorial design (one for terminal values and other for instrumental values) with three categories of sex-marital status (unmarried women, unmarried men, and married women), two levels of education (fairly good educational background and poor educational background) and two types of location (rural and urban) were employed. There were twelve group of respondents each having thirty subjects. The analysis of variance showed that location, education and sex-marital status had significant effect on terminal values of the respondents but there was dignificant effect of these variables (location, education, sex-marital status) on their instrumental values.

KEYWORDS: Educational Status; Rural Population/SN; Marital Status; Urban Population/SN; Personality Inventory; Socioeconomic Factors; Sampling Studies; Regression Analysis; Human; Male; Female; Adult

References: 8

Episodic memory among the aged.
Gupta A; Kaur K, University of Delhi, Delhi.
1996 Jan-Jul; 22(1-2): 107-113

The present study attempted to investigate into the ability of the young and elderly adults for possessing of verbatim and inferential information presented in episodes which recounted everyday events. The study also examined gender differences in processing of episodic material. The findings indicated an overall age deficit on both verbatim and inferential processing. Both young and elderly subjects performed significantly poorer on inferential as compared to verbatim questions. While main effect of gender was not significant, elderly males performed significantly poorer than young males with no significant difference in the overall information processing of young and elderlly females. Further, elederly females performed significantly better than elderly males in inferential processing. The overall findings support an age deficit in information processing as a whole which may be accounted due to general age-related slowing, reduction in working memory capacity and reduced attentional or processing capacity in effortful processing.