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JIAAP Abstracts 1995

Sarup G; Suchner RW; Dasgupta A, Northern Illinois University.
1995 Jan; 21(1): 1-20

Building on the arguments and findings of an earlier study by Sarup (1975), the present study explicates the concept of national integration for a plural society, examines its dimensional structure through confirmatory factor analyses and establishes both convergent and discriminant validity of three scales that comprise the proposed measure of national integration for India. Analyses of responses to 24 Likert-type items by students from six colleges in Delhi lend support to the conceptuaolization of national integration as a constellation of three relatively distinct dimensions, namely, nationalo identification, national-identification salience (relative to ethnic identifications), and ethnic tolerance. The three-dimensional scale of national integration can be used to study the extent, distribution, trends, and correlates of national integration in a population..

KEYWORDS: India; Ethnic Groups; Psychology, Social; Questionnaires; Human; Male; Female; Adult

References: 9

Stroop interference effect of emotion-arousing words in alexithymia.
Pandey R, Banaras Hindu University Varanasi.
1995 Jan; 21(1): 21-28

Stroop interference effect of emotion-arousing words was examined in alexithymic and nonalexithymic subjects who were presented with baseline stimuli, neutral words and emotion arousing world in Hindi and its transliteral equivalent in English in five colours (red, blue, green, orange and black). Subjects were asked to name the color of words ignoring the content of words. Findings suggested that both alexithymics and nonalexithymics took longer time to "colour-name" emotion-arousing words as compared to baseline stimuli. However, alexithymic subjects had longer time to colour-name emotion-arousing words as cfompared to nonalexithymics. While alexithymic took longer time to colour-name emotion arousing words as compared to both baseline stimuli and neutral words, nonalexithymics did not differ in colour-naming neutral and emotion arousing words. It was also observed that the performance on modified Stroop colour-naming task was not affected by language (Mother/foreign). Findings are discussed in the light of alexithymic’s heightened arousal and hypersensitivity towards arousal.

KEYWORDS: Affective Symptoms/PX; Emotions; Adaptation, Psychological; Attention; Affective Symptoms/DI; Color Perception; Pattern Recoguition, Visual; Human; Male

References: 30

Role of relaxation in hypertension.
Broota A; Varma R; Singh A, University of Delhi, Delhi.
1995 Jan; 21(1): 29-36

The main objective of the present study is to compare the efficacy of three different relaxation techniques in reducing symptoms of hypertension. A sample of 40 patients was selected from clinics of West Delhi. All the subjects were established cases of hypertension and were undear similar medication. Their age varied from 35 to 59 years. The effect of three different relaxation techniques, i.e Broota Relaxation Technique, Jacobson’s Progressive Relaxation Technique and "Shavasana" were studied and the results are compared with a control (no treatment) group. Anxiety symptom checklist, blood pressure (SBP and DBP) and GSR measures have been compared before and after relaxation sessions. A total of 8 sessions on 8 consecutive days were taken. Single factor analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) has been used on which relaxation technique is the only factor. Results show that all the three relaxation therapies are quite effective in reducing symptoms of hypertension as compared to the control group. It is further observed that each of the three relaxation therapies produce different forms of relaxation effects on hypertension. "Shavasana" has been found to be the most effective followed by the Broota Relaxation technique and then Jacobson’s Progressive Relaxation.

KEYWORDS: Hypertension/PX; Hypertension/TH; Meditation; Relaxation Techniques; Anxiety/PX; Stress, Psychological/TH; Stress, Psychological/CO; Blood Pressure; Hypertension/ET; Human; Adult; Aged

References: 11

Time constraints and free recall performance in pervasively hyperactives.
Sharma A; Sinha SP, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Agra.
1995 Jan; 21(1): 37-42

Free recall processes of pervasively hyperactive (PH) and non-hyperactive (NH) children for attended and unattended words were compared under the condition of time constraint (self-imposed constraint vs externally-imposed constraint). Hyperactive children recalled fewer "attended" words under self-imposed condition as compared to non-hyperactive counterparts. PH children recalled more unattended words than normal controls under condition of externally-imposed constraint. Another finding was that non-hyperactive subjects took more time in self-imposed constraints as compared to PH group subjects, which indicates that PH children are more impulsive. Findings suggest that a major determinant of deficits in recall performance of pervasive hyperactives is self-imposed condition.

KEYWORDS: Attention deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/DI; Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/TH; Psychotherapy/MT; Attention; Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/PX; Learning Disorders/PX; Human; Child

References: 27

Spouse support and quality of marital relationship as correlates of stress.
Pradhan M; Misra N, Lucknow University, Lucknow.
1995 Jan; 21(1): 43-50

The present study attempts to examine Spouse Support Satisfaction (SPSS) and Quality of Marital Relationship (QMR) as related with stress among 50 doctor couples incidentally selected. Stress was measured with the help of semi-structured questionnaire including two components : works and family stress. Autonomy and Relatedness Inventory was used to measure marital quality including three positive and three negative dimensions and a modified version of Social Support Questionnaire was used to measure (SPSS). Spouse Support Satisfaction was found to be related with work stress in males, but not in females. The observed relationship between family stress and spouse support was stronger in males than in females, but not statistically significant. Quality of marital relationship was found to be related with stress, specifically with work stress in males but not in females. Family stress, on the other hand, was related with quality of marital relationship in both males and females.

KEYWORDS: Marriage/PX; Spouses/PX; Stress, Psychological; Stress/CO; Family/PX; Depression/PX; Anxiety/PX; Questionnaires; Regression Analysis; Human; Male; Female; Adult

References: 35

Interpersonal interactions in the work setting : a study of male and female employees at clerical and managerial levels in BPCL.
Shukla A; Tripathi A, Lucknow University, Lucknow.
1995 Jan; 21(1): 51-59

The present study attempted to identify stress areas in interpersonal relations at work by exploring the influence of gender and occupational hierarchy on various aspects of interpersonal interactions in a public sector organization : BPCL. Data were collected from 50 male and 50 female respondents employed at clerical and managerial levels and analyzed using 2x2 ANOVA. Major findings were that (1) females received more openness but less significance than males(2) clerks received more control but expressed less significance than managers(3) while managers expressed more inclusion, openness and competence than clerks. In short, the study suggested that in the work setting the main issues related to interpersonal relations seem to be those of control, openness and significance.

KEYWORDS: Interpersonal Relations; Stress, Psychological; Psychology, Social; Workplace; Questionnaires; Gender Identity; Human; Male; Female; Adult

References: 9

Effect of protein synthesis inhibition on memory.
Sharma NR; Muhar IS, M.D. University Rohtak.
1995 Jan; 21(1): 61-64

An experiment based on multi-group designing was conducted to study the effect of Protein synthesis inhibitor (PSI) on memory. The experiment consisted of 4 groups (2 experimental + 2 control) and a random sample of 40 male albino rats of about 90 days old was used for the purpose. The animals were given a subcutaneous injection of Anisomycin (a PSI) or saline either prior or immediately after training on a single trial passive avoidance task. Results indicate that pre and immediate post training administration of anisomycin impaired memory.

KEYWORDS: Memory/DE; Anisomycin/AE; Protein Synthesis Inhibitors/PD; Anisomycin/AD; Memory/PH; Injectious, Subcutaneous; Data Interpretation, Statistical; Animal; Male; Rats

References: 8

Utility of single versus joint occurrence of word-association emotional indicators.
Upmanyu VV; Singh S, Punjab University Chandigarh.
1995 Jan; 21(1): 65-70

Two hundred fifty male university students took Modified Kent-Rosanoff Word Association Test, IPAT Anxiety Scale Questionnaire Eysenck Personality QuestionnaireTorrance Test of Creative Thinking, Figural and Verbal Form Aand MMPI Psychopathic deviate subscale. Word Association Test was scored for unique responses (UR), long reaction time (LRT), repetition of stimulus before responding (RSBR), forgetting (Fg) and misremembering (W), and response repetition (RR). The simultaneous occurrence of R-LRT-RR and UR-LRT-W emerged to be a more valid criteria for both psychosis proneness and psychopathic deviation. The findings could be said to provide evidence validating the utility of simultaneous occurrence of these emotional indicators for diagnosing individuals who are "at risk" with respect to a veriety of adjustment problems later in life.

KEYWORDS: Emotions; Psychotic Disorders/PX; Memory; World Association Tests; Questionnaires; Regression Analysis; Human; Male

References: 24

Efficacy of study skills training in managing study habits and test anxiety of high test anxious students.
Saughvi C, University of Delhi, Delhi.
1995 Jan; 21(1): 71-75

A total of 40 high test anxious students were administered Survey of Study Habits and attitudes (SSHA), Test Anxiety Inventory and Academic Performance Test before starting the training. Twenty subjects were randomly assigned to each of two groups (i.e study siklls training group and control group) Each subject was administered the study skills training or no training consecutively for 6 days (6 sessions). All the three questionnaires were administered twice, pre-training and post-training. The findings reveal that study skills training improved the study habits and reduced the test anxiety of the students in comparison to the control group Lowering of test anxiety lead to improvement in academic performance.

KEYWORDS: Educational Measurement; Anxiety/PX; Anxiety/DI; Adolescent Psychology; Thinking; Test Anxiety Scale; Learning; Educational Status; Questionnaires; Adaptation, Psychological; Human; Adolescence

References: 14

On-the-job and off-the job areas of job satisfaction in relation to job involvement and participation.
Singh M; Pestonjee DM, Jamia Millia Islamia Delhi.
1995 Jan; 21(1): 77-82

The study examines the effect of job involvement and participation on ‘on-the-job’ factors and ‘off-the-job’ factors of job satisfaction in different groups. Data were collected from a sample of 145 officers and 135 clerical personnel of a large banking organisation on West Zone. The results tend to support previous research findings regarding the moderating effects of job involvement and participation on ‘on-the-job’ factors and ‘off-the-job’ factors of job satisfaction in different groups. In fact significant interactions, between job involvement and participation and job level and participation are obtained. The relationship between ‘on-the-job’ and ‘off-the-job’ factors are also discussed.

KEYWORDS: Employment; Job Satisfaction; Job Description; Personal Satisfaction; Regression Analysis; Sampling Studies; Data Interpretation, Statistical; Human; Adult

References: 15

Areas of improvement in recovering alcoholics.
Rajendran R, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar.
1995 Jan; 21(1): 83-86

The present study was conducted on 100 recovering alcoholics who had finished the initial treatment at T.T. Ranganathan Clinical Research Foundation, Madras. They were administered a detailed Follow-up Interview Schedule which assess the changes in different areas of Alcoholics life. Results show that there is a significant improvement in four areas namely : Health status. Job status, Inter-personal and Financial status. These changes in different areas are not related to age, education and duration of drinking.

KEYWORDS: Alcoholism/RH; Life Style; Alcholism/PX; Health Status; Substance Dependence/PX; Substance Dependence/RH; Socioecoonomic Factors; Job Satisfaction; Data Interpretation, Statistical; Human; Adult; Middle Age

References: 5

A comparative study of MZ and DZ twins on level I and level II mental abilities and personality.
Nathawat SS; Puri P, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur.
1995 Jan; 21(1): 87-92

A comparative study was carried out on 15 pairs of MZ and DZ Twins to find out differences, if any, in their Level I and Level II mental abilities and personality Level I mental abilities were assessed by Digit-span and Word-Association Test. Level II mental abilities were measured by SPM. Personality was assessed by Karolinska Scale of OPersonality (KSP). Results showed that intraclass correlations of MZ Twins for tasks of Level I and level II were much higher as against their DZ counterparts. Out of the 15 KSP Personality factors, the MZ twins obtained higher intraclass correlations (more than 5) on muscular tension, monotony avoidance, detachment, socialization,o indirect aggression, suspiciousness and guilt as compared to DZ twins whose correlations were very low on these meaures. However, intraclass correlations of both the twin groups were more or less similar on measures of somatic and psychic anxiety social desirability, impulsiveness, psychasthenia, verbal aggression, irritability and inhibition of aggression. Importance of heritability is emphasized in determination if intelligence and personality.

KEYWORDS: Twins, Dizygotic/GE; Twins, Monozygotic/GE; Personality/GE; Personality Assessment; Diseases in Twins/PX; Twins, Dizygotic/PX; Twins, Monozygotic/PX; Socioeconomic Factors; Regression Analysis; Human; Adolescence; Adult; Male; Female

References: 28

Correlates of daily hassles among dual career women.
Thakar G; Misra G, Barkatullah University, Bhopal.
1995 Jul; 21(2): 93-101

Following a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design, with two levels of employment (Housewife/Dial career women), two levels of age (below 40 years/above 40 years) and two types of family (nucler.joint), the present study examined the pattern of daily hassles experienced in ralation to perceived control, social support, mental health and life satisfaction. The dual career women reported significantly greater incidence of daily hassles. Interestingly, even with more hassled life, they displayed greater degree of life satisfaction as compared to housewives. Older dual career women from nuclear families perceived greater degree of control, while social support was shared similarly across all the groups. The findings are discussed and their implications are indicated.

KEYWORDS: Women, Working/PX; Activities of Daily Living; Women/PX; Quality of Life; Nuclear Family; Marital Status; Stress, Psychological; Data Interpretation, Statistical; Socioeconomic Factors; Workload; Family/PX; Human; Female; Adult; Aged

References: 11

State anxiety and death sensitivity among smack addicts and alcoholics.
Maqbool S; Jahan A, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh.
1995 Jul; 21(2): 103-108

Sensation seeking and Anxiety States test and death Sensitivity Scale were administered on 120 smack addicts and 120 alcoholics to determine : (a) the differences between the mean scores of low sensation seeker smack addicts and high sednsation seeker smack addicts, and low sensation seeker alcoholics and high sensation seeker alcoholics on state anxiety and death sensitivity: (b) the difference between the mean scores of low sensation seeker smack addicts and low sensation seeker alcoholics on state anxiety and death sensitivity. Data were anallysed by means of t-test. The main findings of the study were : (1) significant differences were found between low and high sensation seeker smack addicts, and low and high sensation seeker alcoholics on state anxiety, (2) low and high sensation seeker smack addicts scored significantly higher than the low and high sensation seeker alcoholics on death sensitivity.

KEYWORDS: Alcoholism/CO; Alcoholism/PX; Anxiety/PC; Substance Abuse/DI; Substance Abuse/CO; Substance Abuse/PX; Anxiety/ET; Substance Dependence/PX; Sampling Studies; Anxiety/PX; Comparative Study; Human

References: 9

Life stress and burnout in female college teachers.
Sahu K; Misra N, Gokul Das Hindu Girls College, Moradabad.
1995 Jul; 21(2): 109-113

The present study attempts to find out the relationship between life stress and burnout. A sample of 120 female degree college teachers was taken. MBI and open-ended questionnaire of life stress is significantly positively related with emotional exhaustion (EE) and depersonalization (DP) but not with personal accomplishment (PA). In addition, results reveal that stress experienced in family area is significantly and positively related with EE and DP and negatively with PA, while society related stress is found to be related with DP only.

KEYWORDS: Life Change Events; Stress, Psycholigical; Depression; Teaching; Social Adjustment; Stress; Adaptation, Psychological; Sampling Studies; Questionnaires; Human; Female; Adult; Aged

References: 20

Role of emotional structure of mother and its impact on adolescents attitude towards discipline.
Mukhopadhyay A; Bose S, Mahila Mahavidyalaya, B.H.U., Varanasi.
1995 Jul; 21(2): 115-118

An attempt is made in the investigation to trace out the emotional structure and social anxiety pattern of mothers of adolescents as an underlying factor of their discipline problems. 28 adolescents of 10-15 years age group constituted the sample to study attitude towards discipline. The mothers (n is equal to 28) of the same sample comprised the second group, where classified into emotionally stable and emotionally unstable groups on the basis of their scores on self reporting Emotionally unstable groups on the basis of their scores on self reporting Emotional Maturity Scale. They were also tested with Social Evaluative Anxiety Scale to trace the precursor of their emotional structure. Results reveals that adolescents having emotionally stable mothers scored significantly high in discipline score than their counterparts having emotionally unstable mothers. Emotionally unstable mothers were also foound to be significantly high in soocial avoidance and distress (SAD) and fear of negative evaluation (FNE) factors. Discipline score of adolesceant group proved to be negatively correlated with their mother’s emotional maturity score and also with SAD and FNE factors.

KEYWORDS: Parent-Child Relations; Mothers/PX; Students/PX; Adolescence; Emotions; Mother-Child Relations; Maternal Behavior/PX; Personality Development; Adolescent Psychology; Sampling Studies; Regression Analysis; Human; Male; Female

References: 18

Job satisfaaction and job involvement among nurses.
Patel MK, Saurashtra University, Rajkot.
1995 Jul; 21(2): 119-125

The present investigation is aimed at finding out the relationship between job involvement and job satisfaction among nurses. Personal variable like age, length of service, marital status and caste were also considered for their role in job satisfaction and job involvement. Brayfield-Rothe Job Satisfaction Scale, Lodahl and Kejner’s Job Involvement Scale and Personal Data Sheet were used to measure the variables under study. Correlational and Chisquare techniques were used to test the hypotheses. Results reveal that almost all nurses have exhibited job involvement and job satisfaction, but no significant positive correlation was found between job satisfaction and job involvement. Personal variable of marital status had significant effect on job involvement, whereas not a single variable under study had significant effect on job satisfaction.

KEYWORDS: Job Satifaction; Nurses/PX; Nursing Staff, Hospital; Nursing Staff/PX; Nurse-Patient Relations; Employment/PX; Socioeconomic Factors; Sampling Studies; Data Interpretation, Statistical; Human; Female; Adult; Aged

References: 23

Differential effects of Noise on work output.
Laul R; Muhar IS; Mahajan KK; Bhatia P, M.D. University, Rohtak.
1995 Jul; 21(2): 127-133

A sample of 450 Ss-225 of high and 225 of low noise sensitivity was drawn. A 5x4x2 factorial design having 40 cells with 10 Ss in each conditioin was adopted. The three independent variables-five noise conditions, four tasks and two noise sensitivity levels were varied to investigate their effects on work output. The significant effects of these variables on work output were tested by employing ANOVA, which was followed by DRT and t tests. Significant interactions among these variables showed that noises, tasks and noise sensitivity levels are differentially effective in influencing the output and their effects are also interdependent on one another. The magnitudee of effect of one independent variable on the dependent variable was controlled by the other two independent variables.

KEYWORDS: Noise; Noise, Occupational; Workload/PX; Differential Threshold; Affect/PH; Stress, Psychological/CO; Sampling Studies; Data Interpretation, Statistical; Human

References: 13

Indian children in britain : english or Indian.
Sachdev D, Southbank University, London.
1995 Jul; 21(2): 135-143

KEYWORDS: Child; Spiritualism; Great Britain; India; Religion; Philosophy; Culture; Adaptation, Psychological; Data Collection; Regression Analysis; India; Questionnaires; Sampling Studies; Human

References: 16

A study of life events in patients of unipolar depression.
Dang R; Aggarwal S, Maharishi Dayanand University, Rohtak.
1995 Jul; 21(2): 145-152

A study of life events was conducted to provide empirical evidence of role of life events in patients of Manic depressive psychosis (MDP) Unipolar. A bivariate factorial design with three independent variables was used to study the effect of mental status (patients of MDP-Unipolar vs. controls), gender (males vs. females), and age (upper vs. lower) on life events over two time frames, i.e. life time and past one year. The study was conducted on a sample of 120 subjects, out of which 60 subjects were patients of depression (MDP Unipolaar 296.1) and 60 subjects were matched controls, divided equally in gender and age groups. Perceived severity of life events stress was assessed by individual administration of PSLE-scale. Analysis of variance was used to find out the interactive effects, separately for the two time frames, the total stress scores and the scores on five types of life events. The main effect of mental status was significant in all the analyses with a consistent pattern of higher mean scores in the patient as compared to control group. Effect of mental status was significant in all the analyses with a consistent pattern of higher mean scores in the patient as compared to control group. Effect of gender was significant only in desirable events in both the time frames, whereas age was insignificant in all the analyses. Significant gender and age and mental status, gender and age interactions were obtained. The findings were discussed in the light of interactive effects, time frames and the types of life events.

KEYWORDS: Depressive Disorder/DI; Depressive Disorder/PX; Depressive Disorder/CO; Life Change Events; Psychological Tests; Social Adjustment; Sampling Studies; Data Interpretation, Statistical; Human; Male; Female

References: 26

Identification of important dimensions of marital interaction : the western and eastern perspectives.
Upadhyay K; Shukla A, Indian Institute of Management, Lucknow.
1995 Jul; 21(2): 153-165

Marital research in general, is characterized by conceptual and methodological problems. Majority of such researches only makes global evaluation of marital interaction may have on the quality of marital relationship. The present paper therfore attempts to identify dimensions of marital interaction that could be important in the context of marital relationship both in the eastern and the western cultures. Based upon a review of available published literature and extensive, indepth interviews with a small sample of married Indian couples, brief discussions are presented of such dimensions as consensus, power and decision making, communication, altruism, affect, sexual satisfication, intimacy and trust, companionship, compatibility, conventionality, conflict, etc. Also, it is observed that marital interaction in various cultures is greatly influenced by the position of women in that sociocultural set up and that westen society is dominated by the concept of individualism while the eastern society is more family oriented. Lastly, a few suggestions are offered for designing marital researches in future.

KEYWORDS: Gender Identity; Marital Status; Marriage/PX; Communication; Inter Personal Relations; Marriage/TD; Anger; Conflict (Psychology); Problem Solving; Marital Therapy; Personal Satisfaction; Human; Male; Female; Adult

References: 70

Promotion of occupational health and well being : a medico-psychological approach.
Rishi P; Nigam R, Indian Institute of Forest Management, Bhopal.
1995 Jul; 21(2): 167-175

Using new emerging technologies in our developmental efforts is the demand of the era but it is equally important to be aware of the health costs resulting from exposure to environmental pollution and other by products of high technology. The increasing potential hazards to the health resulting from unsafe occupational environment are creating an alarming situation and promotion of occupational health and well being has become and issue of great concern. Various occupational hazards like physical, chemical, biological, mechanical and psychosocial have been discussed with spoecial reference to various occupational diseases like pneumoconiosis, lead poisoning, occupational dermatitis, radiation hazards and occupational hazards of agricultural workers. Finally, measures for the promotion of general occupational health and well being have been discussed within the medico-psychological persopective with special reference to Indian scenario.

KEYWORDS: Health Promotion; Occupational Diseases/PC; Occupational Health; Safety; Occupational Exposure/AE; Safety Management; Hazardous Substances; Stress, Psychological; Environmental Pollutants/TO; India; Risk Factors; Life Style; Adaptation, Psychological; Human; Health Promotion/TD

References: 25

Psychiatric morbidity and neurosis among industrial population in the out patient department of a general hospital.
Singh AR; Ahmad H; Shukla TR; Banerjee KR, Samvedna Clinic, New Delhi.
1995 Jul; 21(2): 177-183

Psychiatric morbidity and neurosis among the industrial population being attended to in the out-patient department of a large general hospital was surveyed by using G.H.Q-12 and then M.M.Q. Out of the 542 male adult patients analysed, 75.09 percent of the patients scored above the cut-off point on G.H.Q.-12 and after correction 64.18 percent of the patients were found to be having psychiatric disorders. Further analysis of the patients suffering from psychiatric problems was done with M.M.Q. which revealed that 79.23 percent of these patients had neurotic illness. The final implications of the findings have been discussed here.

KEYWORDS: Mental Disorders/DI; Neurotic Disorders/DI; Anxiety Disorders/CO; Anxiety Disorders/DI; Depressive Disorders/DI; Anxiety Disorders/PX; Mental Disorders/PX; Depressive Disorders/PX; Presonality Assessment; Outpatient Clinics, Hospital/OG; Sampling Studies; Questionnaires; Industry; Human; Adult; Male

References: 28

Three gunas and cognitive characteristics : study of memory and extrasensory perception.
Sitamma M; Rao PVK; P V Krishna Rao, Andhra University.
1995 Jul; 21(2): 185-191

The study attempted to identify the personality types based on the guna system and to relate them to memory and extrasensory perception (ESP). Fifty college students were administered a personality inventory and a pairedassociates memory-ESP test. A significant negative correlation (r is equal to minous 30, P<.05) was obtained between memory scores and tamas. Subjects were also divided into high and low groups on each guna and their ESP and memory scores were compared by means of a t-test. High and low tamas groups were found to differ significantly in their memry scores (t is equal to 1.94, df is equal to 48, P<.05).

KEYWORDS: Parapsychology; Cognition; Memory; Personality Assessment; Psychiatric Status Rating Scales; Regression Analysis; Sampling Studies; Data Interpretation, Statistical; Human; Adult; Male; Female

References: 19