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JIAAP Abstracts 1994

Restandardization of the child version of the writing apprehension test with younger children.
Cardinale P; Fish JM; Bishop W, St. John’s University, New York City.
1994 Jan; 20(1): 1-5

A child version of Daly and Miller’s (1975) Writing Apprehension Test (WAT) was constructed by Silverman and Zimmerman (1982), and standardized on seventh and eighth graders. Their child version of the WAT was restandardized with fourth and fifth graders in the current research, generating new norms for the population. No sex differences were found by grade, and within each grade level, almost all item means by gender were very similar. Writing apprehension was found to increase, and to become increasingly normally distributed, with age. These data suggest that the WAT can be used in research on the early development and treatment of writing apprehension.

KEYWORDS: Anxiety/PX; Writing; Anxiety/DI; Personality Inventory; Psychometrics; Child; Human; Adolescence; Internal-External Control; Male; Female

References: 14

Leadership in industrial organizations and the grid approach in Indian context.
Helode RD, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur.
1994 Jan; 20(1): 7-16

By employing the grid approach in the present study, 9 managers (4 from Govt. and 5 from private organisations) and their 9 immediate subordinates (4 from Govt. and 5 from private organizations respectively) working in the industrial organisations of Bhilai and Raipur were subjected to Helode’s (1988) Managerial Grid Measure-self Rating From (MGM-SRF) and Managerial Grid Measure-Peers Rating Form (MGM-PRF) respectively, to know the extent of managers’ concern for ‘production’ and ‘people/workers’and subordinates’ perception of their managers’ concern for ‘production’ and ‘workers’. Statistical analyses of data revealed that (i) managers from both Govt. and private organizations have shown significantly more concern for ‘production’ than for ‘workers’ and their subordinates also perceived their managers’ such differential concerns to the significant extent, that (ii) managers from both Govt. and private organizations did not differ significantly with respect to their concern for ‘production’ however, managers from Govt. organizations have shown significantly more concern for ‘workers’ than their counterparts from private organizationsand that (iii) subordinates from both Govt. and private organizations have perceived their managers as having relatively greater concern for ‘production’however, subordinates from Govt. organizations have underestimated and those from private organizations have overestimated their managers concern for ‘workers’ to the noticeable extent. Thus, there seems to be a strong need for synchronizing managers’ "concerns" and subordinates’ "perception of those concerns" through psychological counselling in such a way that work accomplishment is reached by committed people with interdependence through a common stake in organization purpose and with turst and respect in the interest of a larger society and a developing nation like ours.

KEYWORDS: Leadership; Models, Psychological; Psychology, Industrial; Decision Making; Questionnaires; Reproducibility of Results; Cluster Analysis; Self Concept; Data Interpretation, Statistical; Human; Adult; India

References: 19

A study of ethnic hierarchy in India.
Broota DK; Tagore R, University of Delhi.
1994 Jan; 20(1): 17-22

The perceptions and attitudes of the majority group (Hindu) towards the three minority groups (Muslims, Christians, and Sikhs) have been analyzed to establish the existence of vertical hierarchy, widely shared by the in-group members with specific group sequence. Such hierarchical relationship allows understanding of intergroup relations. The study included an assessment of stereotypes, social distance, and perceived threat from majority group in relation to the three minority groups. The sample consisted of 160 Hindu students of Delhi University aged between 18 and 22 years, 80 males and 80 females. The results indicate that the negative stereotypes held by the majority groups about the three minorityo groups differed significantly (p<.01). Muslims have been ascribed the highest number of nagative stereotypes, followed by Christians, and then Sikhs, the difference between christians and Sikhs being non-significant. Males and females did not differ with respect to the negative stereotypes held towards the three out-groups. The social distance held by the majority group on which out-groups have been arranged showed maximum distance towards Muslims significantly (p<.01) different from those towards Christians and Sikhs. Subjects high on religiosity hold greater social distance towards the outgroup members than those low on religiosity, average correlation being 0.24. Ethnic hierarchy shared by the Hindu in-group, as revealed through the study of steroeotypes, social distance, and perceived threat, places Sikhs highest in the hierarchy and Muslims at the lowest point and Christians in the middle.

KEYWORDS: Ethnic Groups/PX; Students/PX; Hierarchy, Social; Social Behavior; Social Class; Sociometric Techniques; Social Adjustment; Data Collection; Human; India/EH

References: 14

Cognitions of test anxious students during an actual test situation.
Sud A; Katoch S, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla.
1994 Jan; 20(1): 23-30

In order to understand the test anxiety and test performance relationship more fuly, the study explored the cognitious of students at various moments during an actual course examination. A3x2x3 (last Anxiety level of Scholastic ability/point of assessment) factorial design was employed to examine effects on three dependent variables : (a) Task debilitation cognitions, (b) Task facilitating cognitions and (c) History test grade. The sample consisted of 180 boys and girls divided equally. The results indicated that middle point of assessment was more anxiety provoking on task debilitation cognitions. Task facilitating positive evaluations were noted among high scholastic ability subjects only, but to a lesser extent. The implications of the results for improving test performance and for cognitive assessment methodology are discussed.

KEYWORDS: Achievement; Anxiety/DI; Cognition; Students/PX; Anxiety/PX; Test Anxiety Scale; Psychometrics; Task Performance and Analysis; Human; Child; Adolescence; India

References: 27

Coping strategies : factor structure, sex differences, and relationship with psychological distress.
Prakash IJ; Bhogle S, Bangalore University Bangalore.
1994 Jan; 20(1): 31-38

This study was carried out to identify (a) the factor structure of a measure of coping behaviour (b) sex differences in coping styles of male and female students and (c) the relationship between coping and psychological distress. 232 adult normal subjects were assessed on coping behaviour and GHQ-28. Factor analysis of the coping checklist yielded 13 factors accounting for 62 percent of the variance. Female students used significantly more Emotions-oriented coping techniques. Psychological distress was significantly related to use of Emotion oriented coping. The Implications of the finding are discussed.

KEYWORDS: Adaptation, Psychological; Stress, Psychological; Factor Analysis, Statistical; Sex Factors; Students/PX; Human; Adolescence; Adult; India

References: 21

Personality of smokers and drinkers among university students.
Eysenck HJ; Mohan J; Virdi PK, Institute of Psychiatry,Maudsley Hospital,London,England.
1994 Jan; 20(1): 39-44

An attempt was made to study personality of smokers and drinkers among university students. 500 subjects (250 males and 250 females) ware administered Eysenck’s Personality Questionnaire, Information regarding smoking and drinking was noted. Mean, SDs, correlations and T-ratios were computed. Smokers scored higher on E and P, non-smokers on N and Lie Scale and correlated negatively with smoking. Significant differences were found among smokers and non-smokers on E and N. Drinkers had high score on E and P and non-drinkers on N and Lie-Scale. E correlated positively with drinking, N correlated negatively with drinking.

KEYWORDS: Alcoholism/PX; Personality; Smoking/PX; Alcohol Drinking/PX; Students/PX; Personality Inventory; Personality Assessment; Psychiatric Status Rating Scales; Psychometrics; Human; Male; Female; Adult

References: 13

Perception of maternal behaviour and self-concept.
Gupta R , R.G. (P.G.) College, Meerut.
1994 Jan; 20(1): 45-49

The Present study seeks to examine the relationship of self-concept to six dimensious of perceived maternal behaviour, namely, child centeredness, Possessiveness, Intrusiveness, Extreme Autonomy, Acceptancea, Rajection. One Hundred female adolescents, ranging in age from 14 to 17 yoears served as subjects. They were administaered SCQ and CRPBI (Mother Form). The main findings of the study are (i) There is a statistically significant positive relationship between female adlescent’s self-conceopt and perceived maternal child centeredness and possessiveness (ii) The Temperamental, Education, and Moral Self-Concepts have got a significant and positive relationship with perceived maternal child centeredness.

KEYWORDS: Maternal Behavior/PX; Mothers/PX; Self Concept; Adolescent Behavior; Mother-Child Relations; Analysis of Variance; Human; Adolescence; India; Psychometrics

References: 14

Development of age measures as expression of aggression among Indian women.
Ujjwala Rani MV, S.V. University, Tirupati.
1994 Jan; 20(1): 51-55

Development of measures of expression of aggression suitable to different age groups of Indian women has been taken up in the present work. The age groups for which measures of expression of aggression were developed include late child-hood, adolescence, adulthood, middle age and old age. The sample for the different measures included, for child-hood 100, adolescence 100, adult-hood 200, middle age 200 and old age 100, equal number of rural and urban middle class women. After item analysis 25 items comprising 8 sub scales in each measure were retained. Factorial validity for the five measures indicated three factors and the test-retest reliability for the five measures was calculated.

KEYWORDS: Aggression/PX; Age Factors; Psychometrics; Analysis of Variance; Human; Female; India

References: 7

Depressive features in learning disabled children.
Sethia P; Sinha SP; Saxena S, DEI Dayalbagh, Agra.
1994 Jan; 20(1): 57-62

This study compared the depressive features among learning disabled and normal control children. Childhood depression inventory was administered to parents of 24 LD and 24 normal control children and the scores for ten features of depression i.e., moodiness, social isolation, crying spells, lack of energy, pessimism, concern with death and separation, seriousness of attitude, sensitivity to criticism, indecisiveness and uncommunicativeness were taken. Significant differences were found among the depression oflearning disabled and controlled children. Factorwise analysis revealed learning disabled children to be higher on factors of social isolation, pessimism serious attitude and sensitivity to criticism. Results are discussed in terms of various socio-emotional factors.

KEYWORDS: Learning Disorders/PX; Depressive Disorders/PX; Depressive Disorders/DI; Child Behavior Disorders/PX; Personality Inventory; Risk Factors; Psychiatric Status Rating Scales; Human; Child; India

References: 24

Effect of noise on output and physiological energy expenditure.
Muhar SIS; Bhatia P, M.D. University, Rohtak.
1994 Jan; 20(1): 63-67

A study, based on block randomised factorial design with six subgroups having fifteen Ss in each-three belonging to low and remaining three to high noise sensitivity group, was conducted. The study was carried out to find out the effect of meaningless and meaningful noises on the workout and physiological energy expenditure inferred from the increase in fasting blood glucose level. The differences and interactions among various group means were tested by parametric two way analysis of variance. Since F value relating to noise variable was significant DRT was employed. Results indicated that quantitative and qualitative work output remained physiologically constlier in terms of energy expenditure under meaningful as well as meaningless noise compared to no noise condition. The meaningful noise though, proved more distracting than meaningless noise.

KEYWORDS: Noise; Stress, Psychological; Energy Intake; Noise Transportation; Mental Processes/PH; Data Interpretation, Statistical

References: 4

Hypoxican characteristics in learning-disabled (LD) and non-learning-disabled (NLD) children.
Prasad S, University of Gorakhpur, Gorakhpur.
1994 Jan; 20(1): 69-74

This study was designed to investigate the hypoxican characteristics of learning disabled (LD) and non-learning-disabled (NLD) children. The sample comprised of 10 LD and 10 NLD children. Sensitivities of LD and NLD children were assessed with the help of Dogherty, Nuechterlin and Drew formula. Identification abilities were measured by the Figure Ground test of Marianne Frosting Development Test and Sinha’s Indo-African Embedded Figure Test. The results revealed that LD children have poor level of information processing, sensitivity and also inefficient discriminating abilities than their NLD counterparts.

KEYWORDS: Learning Disorders/PX; Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/PX; Psychomotor Performance; Neuropsychological Tests; Psychometrics; Reaction Time; Attention Deficit Disorders with Hyperactivity/DI; Human; Child; India

References: 17

Personality correlates of learning disabled children.
Sood P, Osmania University, Hyderabad.
1994 Jan; 20(1): 75-81

The present study was designed to examine the relationship between certain personality factors like self concept, social maturity, reasoning ability, general anxiety and learning disabilities. The sample comprised of 53 normals and 41 children with learning disabilities in the age group of 8-11 years, drawn from primary and upper primary English medium schools of twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad. The results revealed that children with Learning Disabilities (LD) exhibited significantly more anxiety, had a lower self-concept and low (below average) reasoning ability. There was no significant difference between LD and Social Maturity. Sex was found to be significantly related to LD. LD were more among boys than among girls. Age was not related to LD.

KEYWORDS: Learning Disorders/PX; Personality Assessment; Education, Special; Anxiety/PX; Self Concept; Sex Factor; Age Factors; Psychometrics; Personality Inventory; Human; Child; India

References: 28

Impact of headship style upon social-emotional climate, academic achievement and campus activities of students.
Roy GS; Sinha RK; Hassan M, L.N. Mithila University, Darbhanga.
1994 Jan; 20(1): 83-86

The study was conducted to highlight the impact of headship style upon socialemotional climate, academic achievement and campus activities of the students. The sample comprised of 200 male and female students drawn from five high schools under private and public managements and located in rural and urban areas. Interview schedule, objective test and observational techniques were employed for data collection. It was found that the soical-emotional climate was more under nurturant task headship followed by democratic and authoritarian headship. Similarly students’ academic achievement was better under nurturant headship and favourable social-emotional climate. It was also observed that frequency of mischievious activities of the students was higher under authoritarian headship and more studious activities under nurturant task headship.

KEYWORDS: Leadership; Education; Students/PX; Achievement; Psychometrics; Human; Adolesence; India; Schools/OG

References: 6

Self image and sexuality of kinnauri polyandrous indigenous women.
Shirali KA; Sain N, H.P. University, Shimla.
1994 Jan; 20(1): 87-96

The Self-image and Sexuality of 60 Kinnauri, Single, Monogamous and Polyandrous women were studied by administering the Draw A Person, TAT and the Iconographic Photographs. Results : DAP (head, front view and size)-the younger, educated single and monogamous women had a better selfimage. But examining the fingers, qualityy, colour red, abstract/stylistic drawings, the older, uneducated, polyandrous women projected emotionals stability, dominance, wisdom, work and relational self with a rich ethnic identity. TAT (themes, needs and mental states)All the subjects reflected a positive selfimage of care-concern-nurturance-lover and a relational self. Sexuality-DAP-An absence of breasts etc. But the single drew hourglass figures (15 percent), indicative of Mother Goddess/faminine principle. Colour red was used by 44 perceant. TAT-per/extra marital sex (singles)female sexual submission/frustration (monogamous) general sexual relationship (polyandrous). Iconographic-’Sakhi-Bhav’-sisterhood preferred by all, over the other sexual images.

KEYWORDS: Ethnic Groups; Sex Characteristics; Gender Identity; Sex Behavior; Self Concept; Quality of Life; Sexuality; Demography; Women/PX; Psychometrics; Human; Female; India

References: 26

Social problems, psychology and social policy.
Mishra G; Varma S, University of Delhi, Delhi.
1994 Jul; 20(2): 97-105

The relevance of psychology to the solution of social problems and policy formulation has gradually assumed an importent dimension in the academic debate. This paper examines the pertinent issues and indicates the steps needed to develop a mutually rewarding linkage between the theory and application of psychological knowledge. The nature of social problems and policy is delineated. It is argued that since social problems change with time, a continuous effort has to be made to redesign and evolve successful solutions from time to time. Policy formulation implies a definite course of action and the work for policy demands a dynamic research strategy. Psychologists can significantly contribute towards policy formulation in many domains including teaching-learning, child-care, guidance and counseling, management, and communication, etc. This requires a shift in research paradigm and increased commitment to the societal goals. The new generation of psychologists can play a crucial role in this context.

KEYWORDS: Social Environment; Social Problems; Social Changes; Social Adjustment; Soocial Support; Psychology, Social; Public Policy; Social Problems/PX; Socoial Values; Social Problems/PC; Human

References: 14

A new measure for studying sexual anxiety.
Kumar P, Sardar Patel University Vallabh Vidyanagar.
1994 Jul; 20(2): 107-110

The Sexual Anxiety Scale (SAS) has been developed with a view to provide a handy tool for studying the sexual anxiety of personsand also for identifying cases who may require psycho-diagnostic help to reduce their anxiety about sex before getting married. The scale consists of 16 highly sensitive items given in a 4-point rating format. The split-half and retest reliabilities for the scale have been found to be 88 and 54 (with one seek’s time interval) respectively. The predictive validity has been found to be fairly satisfactory. Separate percentile norms have also been prepared.

KEYWORDS: Anxiety/PX; Sex Behavior; Sexuality; Anxiety/PC; Sex Characteristics; Self Assessment; (Psychology); Mental Health; Impotence/PX; Personality Inventory; Human; Adolescence; Adult; Male; Female

References: 7

Neuroticism, extraversion, work locus of control and work style.
Eysenck MW; Morley S, Royal Holloway University of London.
1994 Jul; 20(2): 111-115

The work style of 35 academics were assessed as a function of individual differences in work locus of control, extraversion, and neuroticism. It was found that neuroticism was associated with poor work structuringa dislike of challenging workNegative beliefs about ability and performanceand negative attitudes and behaviour relating to failure. In contrast, neither work locus of control nor extraversion was related to work styles. Implications of these findings are discussed.

KEYWORDS: Affect; Extraversion (Psychology); Neurotic Disorders/PX; Mental Health; Personality Assessment; Personality Development; Questionnaires; Regression Analysis; Human; Male; Female; Middle Age

References: 8

Psychosocial profile of preadolescent rural children phase-I.
Usha Rani N; Rao VM; Naidu NA; Reddy V; N Usha Rani; M Vishnuvardhana Rao;
A Nadamuni Naidu, National Institute of Nutrition Hyderabad.
1994 Jul; 20(2): 117-124

A sample of 255 boys and 223 girls aged 9 to 11 years were examined for psychosocial profile. Which includes intelligence, adjustment and anxiety. Boys were found to have higher intelligence scores than girls and intelligent children had fewer adjustment problems compared to those with lower IQ. Among the social variables, educational status of the mother and child had positive influence on the intelligence and adjustment of the child. No sex differences were found in anxiety levels but more girls were socially maladjusted compared to boys.

KEYWORDS: Adolescent Psychology; Child Psychology; Adolescent Behavior; Psychosocialo Deprivation; Inteligence Tests; Anxiety; Intelligence; Anxiety Disorders/PX; Regression Analysis; Depression; Human; Male; Female; Adolescence; Child; Intelligence Tests; Psychological Tests; Rural Population; Socioeconomic Status

References: 13

Medical-care seeking and self assessment of health.
Nawab R; Hasan Q, Aligarh Muslim University.
1994 Jul; 20(2): 125-129

The purpose of the present study is to find out differences in medical help seeking behaviour of the subjects who differ in respect of self evaluation of their physical fitness. The pysical fitness scale, containing 15 situations used for self assessmen of health, was administered on a group of 100 subjects. Symptom check list containing 25 symptoms was also administered and subjects were asked to select one of the five treatment alternatives in respect of each symptom from no medication to immediate medication. The main findings of the study are-1) Male students for whom engaging in pphysical activity is not strenuous and for those such activities are strenuous differ in respect of the choice of the treatment alternatives. 2) Females students for whom engaging in physical activity is not strenuous and for those such activiities are strenuous differ in respect of the choice of the treatment alternative. 3) Male and female students for whom engaging in physical activities is strenuous differ with respect to the choice of treatment alternatives. 4) Male and female students for whom engaging in physical activity is not strenuous do not differ in respect to the treatment alternative preferred by them. The findings of the present study show that individuals preference for treatment alternative is related to their self assessment of health status.

KEYWORDS: Physical Fitness/PX; Health Status; Self Assessment (Psychology); Physical Examination; Data Interpretation, Statistical; Human; Male; Female; Adolescence; Adult

References: 5

Employment opportunities for mentally handicapped individuals in rural area :
A proposed model.
Rao HP; Venkatesan S; Vepuri VGD; P Hanumantha Rao, Sweekaar, Rehabilitation Institute for Handicapped Secunderabad.
1994 Jul; 20(2): 131-137

Emplyment for disabled individuals is at a very nascent stage in our country. The problem is more acute in rural areas. There is need to identify employment opportunities for persons with mental handicap in rural areas. A model was worked out by drawing cases of rural adult males with mental handicaps from Sweekaar, Rehabilitation Institute for Handicapped, Secunderabad. The praposed model is to work in five stage, viz., screening and intake, assessment, job identification, job training, and placement respectively. The result of an initial tryout of the model on five cases appeared to be encouraging, though more work remains to be undertaken on a large scale. The need for employment of mentally handicapped persons and the possibility of coordinating and incorporating State/Central Government Schemes for rural development along with employment opportunities for rural adult mental handicap are emphasized.

KEYWORDS: Mental Retardation/RH; Rehabilitation, Vocational/MT; Employment, Supported; India; Education of Mentally Retarded; Mental Retardation/PX; Sheltered Workshops; Social Adjustment; Social Facilitation; Human; Adult; Male; Rural Population

References: 6

Memory deficits in dyslexic children
Singh R; Gupta GC; Broota A, University of Delhi, Delhi.
1994 Jul; 20(2): 139-143

A study was conducted to examine whether the dyslexic children (N is equal to 20, age group : 8 to 10 years 11 months) differed from a control group of normal children (N is equal to 20, age group : 8 to 10 years 11 months) matched in age, educational level and the socioeconomic status of their parents, on memory deficits. The score of the ‘Bender Gestalt Test for Young Children’ was taken as a measure of dyslexia. Subjects short term memory was assessed using the ‘Digit Span Test’ of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. The long term memory was assessed using a self-designed test consisting of ten digits (0 to 9). The results indicate that the dyslexics differ from the non-dyslexic normals on long term and short term memories.

KEYWORDS: Dyslexia/DI; Dyslexia/PS; Vision Disorders; Memory, Short-Term; Memory; Memory Disorders/PX; Retention (Psychology); Neuropsychological Tests; Regression Analysis; Child Psychology; Human; Child; Male; Female

References: 16

Beliefs and death anxiety.

Parsuram A; Gandhi P, Jesus and Mary College, New Delhi.
1994 Jul; 20(2): 145-152

In the present investigation an attempt has been made to study the importance of certain religious and nonreligious beliefs in managing death anxiety. We believe that human beings adopt beliefs which create a cushioning or comforting effect on the human mind with regard to questions of death and dying. Four such beliefs are 1. Belief in God2. Belief in life-after-death3. Justice beliefsand 4. Perceived Controlbeliefs. A total of 90 subjects were selected from three different religious grooupsviz. Islamic, Christian (RC), and Hindus. A significant difference in the death anxiety scores was expected, with Hindus expected to score lower than the Muslims and Christians. The three groups scored significantly differently on deathanxietoy. Results on death anxiety support the hypothesis partially as the mean deathanxiety score for the Muslims, Christians and Hindus is 5.13, 8.56 and 5.53 respectively. Results related to the chosen beliefs also yielded significantly different mean scores across three religions, and have been discussed within the framework of the functional relevance of these beliefs in managing death-anxiety.

KEYWORDS: Anxiety/PX; Attitude to Death; Religion; Depression/PX; Religion and Psychology; Adaptation, Psychological; Defeuse Mechanisms; Paraphychology; Christianity; Islam; Questionnaires; Awareness; Hinduism; Human; Male; Middle Age

References: 19

Quality of Life : Some psychometric properties.
Yousuf ASM, A.N.S. Institute of Social Studies Patna.
1994 Jul; 20(2): 153-162

The present research was undertaken to construct a quality of life scale for physically crippled people. The concept quality of life means the well-being of people. The scale was developed on the basis of 31 a-proriclusters. The final format of quality of life scale consisted of 197 items. The scale alongwith some other constructs was administered on a sample of 200 physically handicapped people constructs was administered on a sample of 200 physically hanidcapped people consisting of two equal groups congenital (N is equal to 100) and acquired (N is equal to 100). The results indicated that a-priori clusters were highly correlated among themselves. The scale items were put into factor analysis. The cutoff point for factor loading was taken upto 25. Eight factors were derived which explained 67.7 percent of the total variance. Factors were named as follows : expressiveness and creative orientation, harmony in the family, political activism, self centredness, recreational activities, family orientation at the cost of health, education and development, and planning orientation. Hence, quality of life scale seems to be a standardized scale and it may be used by other researchers.

KEYWORDS: Quality of Life; Orthopedics; Disabled/PX; Disabled/RH; Activities of Daily Living/PX; Adaptation, Psychological; Psychometrics/MT; Regression Anallysis; Human; Adult; Middle Age

References: 7

Marriage and family ethics in a transitional society : a psychological exploration.
Seth G; Vohra SS, University of Delhi, New Delhi.
1994 Jul; 20(2): 163-169

The study was undertaken to asses and compare (i) the relative importance of selected indices of marital relations and (ii) ethical judgments of people regarding certain contemporyary issues in ‘Marriage’ and ‘Family. The sample consisted of 120 educated, upper middle-class Hindus, of both sexes and belonging to two age groups (22-27 years and 42-47 years). Data was collected using two research tools-’Indices of Marital Relations’ and ‘Marriage and Family Ethics Questionnaire’, Which were developed by the investigator. Data was analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. The findings reveal that out of the thirteen indices studied, ‘Life Long Companionship and Love’ in marital relationships were most highly valued by most of the respondents. Ethical judgments on certain contemporary issue related to changing trends in the institution of marriage and family, patterns of sexual relations in society, and abortion, evoked significantly different responses between males and females and between pople of the two age groups. Results of the study elucidate that although some traditional values are being replaced by modernityl, yet tradition and modernity co-existat time blending and at times conflicting. Thus, the present day, urban, Indian society is a ‘transitional society’ which is neigher fully modern nor fully traditional.

KEYWORDS: Family/PX; Family Therapy/MT; Social Values; Marriage/PX; Ethics; MArital Therapy; Interpersonal Relations; Adaptation, Psychological; Abortion, Legal; Gender Identity; Questionnaires; Human; Male; Female; Adult; Middle Age

References: 28

Effects of education, location and sex-marital status on attitude towards Indian women. Mandal J; Gupta S, University of Calcutta, Calcutta.
1994 Jul; 20(2): 171-174

Attitudinal data concerning women’s rights and roles were collected from a representative sample with special reference to the demographic variables : education, location and sex-marital status of subjects. Men and Women of age group 18-35 years were administered a Bengali version of Likert type of scale constructed by the investigator for assessing the attitudes towards Indian women. Analysis of variance results show that persons with higher education and reared up in urban society have more liberal attitude towards Indian women and also that there is a significant effect of sex-marital status on attitudes towards women.

KEYWORDS: Marital Status; Educational Status; Education; Rural Population; Urban Population; India; Questionnaires; Regression Analysis; Human; Male; Female; Adult

References: 7


A comparison of Indian and american scales of child development.
Vazir S; Lansdown R; Naidu AN; Vidyasagar P; Reddy V, National Institute of Nutrition,
1994 Jul; 20(2): 175-181

As part of a WHO/ICMR initiated multicentric cross-sectional study, data were collected on the psychosocial development of Indian children 0-6 years in Chandigarh, Hyderabed and Jabalpur. Using the grostat software, the data were analyzed and age reference values were derived in terms of centiles. In the present paper, results in terms of the 50th centile age reference values for each milestome obtained in the multicentric study are compared with norms derived from three. American and two Indian test batteries currently in use in India. Sufficient agreement was found between the scales indicating that the milestones standardized in the present study are valid measures of development of development of rural and urban Indian Children.

KEYWORDS: Child Development; Child Language; Social Class; Child Psychiatry; Motor Skills; Family/PX; Parents; Child Behavior; Regression Analysis; Comparative Study; India; United States; Rural Population; Urban Population; Human; Male; Female; Child; Preschool; Infant; Language Development

References: 9

A study of role stress, behaviour patterns and gender among teachers.
Dang R; Gupta R, M.D. University, Rohtak.
1994 Jul; 20(2): 183-188

The present study attempted to explore the effect of work set-up, behaviour pattern and gender, in a 2x2x2 factorial design, on various role stressors as measured by Organizational Role Stress (ORS) Scale. The sample consisted fo 160 lecturers in a medical college and university. Differential effects of the three interactions were obtained. Except work set-up the other variables did not render consistent findings. Relevance of studying specific stressors has been discussed.

KEYWORDS: Stress, Psychological; Teaching; Type A Personality; Gender Identity; Personality Assessment; Questionnaires; Regression Analysis; Social Environment; Human; Male; Female; Adult; Middle Age

References: 28

Assessment of prosocial behaviour among primary school children.
Pushpa G; Vedagiri G; Ramaswamy ND, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University Coimbatore.
1994 Jul; 20(2): 189-192

Prosocial behaviour as it develops in the form of sharing, reciprocity, compensation and emergency behaviour is studied among 100 boys and girls studying in primary school level at Coimbatore. Situational tests were used to assess the levels of prosocial behaviour. The findings reveal that there is no significant difference in prosocial behaviour of boys and girls at different class levels. Among the girls there is no significant difference in prosocial behaviour between different class levels. Boys at fifth standard only differed significantly in their sharing, reciprocity and emergency behaviour.

KEYWORDS: Child Behavior; Personality Development; Social Behavior; Morals; Personality Assessment; Attention; Regression Analysis; Child Welfare; Human; Child; Male; Female

References: 6

Effects of gender and economic status upon attitude towards status of women.
Das I; Sharma A; Sinha SP , Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Agra.
1994 Jul; 20(2): 193-196

The present research was designed to study the affect of gender and economic status upon attitude towards status of women. The sample consisted of 76 male and 76 female students aged 16-20 years of low and high economic status group. Attitude scale. Two-way analysis of variance was used to analyze the data. Results indicated that males’ attitude towards status of women is more negative in comparison to females’ attitude and low economic status subjects were found to have more negative attitude towards status of women in comparison to the high economic status subjects.

KEYWORDS: Gender Identity; Women, Working; Attitude; Socioeconomic Factors; Comparative Study; Regression Analysis; Social Adjustment; Human; Male; Female; Adolescence; Adult

References: 10