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JIAAP Abstracts 2001

Racial disparity, social distance and its management
Saiyadain MS. International Management Institute, New Delhi
2001 Jan-Jul; 27(1-2):1- 6

This study examines the effect of racial disparity on social distance. It also studies the interactive effect of race and few other biographic variables on social distance. Data for the study was collected from 1109 undergraduate students at the University Sains Malaysia. The results show that of the three races in Malaysia, Malay seems to seek more social distance from other races followed by Chinese and Indian. The results also show that female respondents as compared to male and female Malay respondents, compared to other female respondent maintain larger social distance. However respondents with more educated mother’s are less socially distant from other races than those from less educated mother’s. The results are explained in the light of Malaysian historical-cultural context and formal and informal attempts to minimize social distance are high lighted.

KEYWORDS: Data Collection; Racial Stocks; Social Distance; Biography; Race Relations; Management Service Organisations; Students; Students, Medical; Students, Premedical; Human; Male; Female; Malaysia; China; India

References: 12

Career planning orientation of disadvantaged high school boys: A study of socioeconomic and social cognitive variables
Arulmani G; Laar DV; Easton S. , The Promise Foundation, Bangalore, India and University of Portsmouth, U K
2001 Jan-Jul; 27(1-2): 7-17

The present study was conducted in India and examined the impact of socioeconomic factors and the variables of self-efficacy and career beliefs on the career planning orientation of 755 high school boys from disadvantaged backgrounds. The sample had four orientations to career planning, namely, the intention to begin working immediately, pursue college education, enter vocational training and no career plans. The children of illiterate and unemployed parents exhibited the highest tendency to prematurely discontinue education and enter the world of work as unskilled labourers. A significant effect of parent employment on self-efficacy was found, indicating that respondents whose parents had full time employment had higher self efficacy scores than those whose parent were unemployed. It was also found that the children of illiterate and unemployed parents had a higher level of negative beliefs about career preparation. This study also presents information regarding the translation of existing measures of socioeconomic status and self-efficacy in Kannada, a South Indian language and preliminary information about the construction of a scale to measure career belief distortions among high school students.

KEYWORDS: Career choice; Self efficacy; Social class; Socioeconomic factors; Education, Graduate/ED; Education, Professional; Students; Employment; Human; Male; Adolscence.

References: 27

Death anxiety in a Pakistani sample
Suhail K. Govt. College Lahore, Pakistan
2001 Jan-Jul; 27(1-2): 19-27

The present study was conducted to find out the incidences well as the frequency of death anxiety in a Pakistani Muslim sample using the Templer Death Anxiety Scale and Collett-Lester Fear of Death Scale. The interrelationship of death anxiety with the following variables was also investigated: religiosity, anxiety, general well-being and physical health. The findings showed higher death anxiety in Pakistani people compared to other populations. The majority of the subjects reported to fear the uncertainty associated with death the most and they thought about death frequently (almost daily). People low in general well-being were more anxious of their impending death, whereas those with higher general anxiety were more concerned about death. Religion was not significantly correlated with death anxiety. The results were interpreted in relation to cultural and religious environment specific to Pakistan.

KEYWORDS: Death; Anxiety; Anxiety disorder; Emotions; Psychology, Medical; Education; Information Theory; Fear/MO; Probability; Religion and Science; Islam; Pakistan

References: 34

Occupational stress and consequent strains in relation to personality
Srivastava AK., Banaras Hindu University Varanasi
2001 Jan-Jul; 27(1-2): 29-36

The study examines the modifying effect of certain personality traits on the relationship of occupational stress and job behaviour (job satisfaction, performance and absenteeism) and physical health in a sample of 300 technical supervisors. The study reveals that employees, occupational stress significantly negatively correlates with their job satisfaction and physical health, but not with their performance and rate of absenteeism at work. The study also notes that personality traits, like emotional stability, independence, and practically markedly attenuate the adverse effect of occupational stress on employees, job satisfaction and physical health. But the traits of radicalism and conservatism do not modify the relationship of these variables to any significant extent.

KEYWORDS: Stress; Personality; Occupations; Physical fitness; Psychosomatic dedicine; Job Satisfaction; Behavioral symptoms; Health status; Human; Female; Male; Adult

References: 32

A preliminary study of psychological after effects of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) caused by earthquake: The Ahmedabad experience
Pestonjee DM; Pandey SC., Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad and Mudra Institute of communications, Ahmedabad
2001 Jan-Jul; 27(1-2): 37-44

The present study is a preliminary research intended to investigate various psychological symptoms related to post traumatic stress caused by an earthquake of severe magnitude. The main objective of this study was to investigate psychological symptoms, which appeared in earthquake-affected people’s behaviour. Because this study was a preliminary study, so, no hypothesis was tested in this case. Another objective of the study is to collect information about psychological symptoms that may be used in developing a psychometric tool to measure post-traumatic Stress Disorder (Earthquake- Specific). The study was conducted on a small sample of 54 people (Males=34, Females=20), selected by incidental sampling method. The age range of the sample varies from 18 to 62 yrs. (average age=approximately 35 yrs.) The sample includes students, professional, employees of educational institution, doctors and older people, too. These people were interviewed by a semi- structured interview schedule, intended to explore their feelings after the earthquake experience. Most of the people included in this study were residents of single-stored to ten storied buildings. Apart from interview, the findings of this study was also supported by the researcher’s observation of people’s verbal and non-verbal behavior, as observed during the interview process. The interviews conducted in this study varied from 10 to 30 minutes, depending upon the interviewee’s cooperation to the researcher. The findings of the study was identified anxiety reactions, phobic related to nightmares, insomnia, loss of appetite, eating disorders, high or low B.P., shivering of various body parts and hypertension, depression frustration and anger, as major psychological aftereffects of earthquake-induced post-traumatic stress disorder. Being a qualitative research, the researchers advise to generalize findings of this study carefully.

KEYWORDS: Natural Disasters; Stress, Psychological/PX; Stress disorders; Post-traumatic/PX; Behavioral symptoms; Psychometrics; Anxiety/ET; Students; Professional practice; Phobic disorders/EP; Dreams; Hypertension/DI; Human; Male; Female; Adult

References: 12

Job stress as a moderator variable of the organizational commitment and job satisfaction relationship
Mishra PC; Srivastava S., University of Lucknow, Lucknow
2001 Jan-Jul; 27(1-2): 45-49

An attempt was made to find out the moderating effect of the job stress on the organisational commitment and job-satisfaction relationship. The Occupational Stress Index developed and standardized by Srivastava and Singh (1981), the organisational Commitment Scale developed and standardized by Meyer and Allen (1984) and S.D. Employees Inventory developed and standardized by Pestonjee (1973) administered on a sample of 250 doctors employed in King George’s Medical college Lucknow (U.P). The moderated multiple regression analysis and sub-group analysis show that job stress has moderating effect on organisational commitment and job-satisfaction relationship.

KEYWORDS: Job Satisfaction; Organizational Case studies/OG; Organizational objectives; Education Medical, Graduate; Occupational health services; Occupational groups; Regression analysis; Human; Female; Male; Adult; Data interpretation

References: 12

Occupational stress and work motivation in relation to age, job level and type-A behaviour in nursing professionals.
Virk J; Chhabra J; Kumar R., Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra
2001 Jan-Jul; 27(1-2): 51-55

The present study was an attempt to investigate the effect of job status age and type-A behaviour on occupational stress and work motivation of nursing professionals. The sample was drawn from 295 nurse who were administered Jenkins Activity Survey (1979) to select the type-A and type-B subjects. A 2x2x2 factorial design with two levels of each of the three independent measures, I.e. job level and type-A behaviour was used. The sample consisted on 117 nursing professionals who further responded on occupational stress index (Srivastava & Singh, 1981) and work motivation (Srivastava,1981) test. A separate analysis of variance each for the two dependent variables was employed. Results revealed that type-A behaviour measure rendered significant effect on occupational stress and work motivation of the subjects. Job level and age variables also yielded significant differences in the work motivation of nursing professionals. A significant second order interactive effect of job level x type A-behaviour x age was found for occupational stress. Measure of type-A behaviour also interacted with job level of the subjects to affect the work motivation of the staff nurses in a significant manner.

KEYWORDS: Motivation; Occupations; Stress, Psychological/PX; Job satisfaction; Nursing services; Nursing assessment/ET; Staff development; Behavior; Human; Female; Adult

References: 20

Burnout and organizational sources of social support in human service professions:
A comparison of woman doctors and nurses
Haque MA; Khan S.
National Institute of Psychology Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan
2001 Jan-Jul; 27(1-2): 57-66

The study investigated the difference between women doctors and nurses on home-work stress, burnout, and its three dimensions. The role of organizational sources of socials support in reducing the home-work stress, burnout, as well as buffering the impact of home-work stress on burnout was explored. Data were collected from 143 women (69 doctors and 74 nurses) working in public hospitals of Lahore. Results indicated that the nurses were significantly different from women doctors in the levels of depersonalization of others and reduced personal accomplishment dimensions of burnout. Results also suggested that the relationship between home-work stress and burnout was moderated by organizational sources of support predominantly in nurses.

KEYWORDS: Emotion; Self Efficacy; Efficiency, Organisational; Organizational policy; Social support; Nursing services; Medical staff; Comparative study; Human; Female; Adult

References: 22

Occupational stress and burnout in engineering college teachers
Pandey R; Tripathi S., D.D.U. Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur
2001 Jan-Jul; 27(1-2): 67-73

Present research examined the level of perceived occupational stress and burnout in engineering college male teachers (N=56) as well as the relative importance of various job stressors in predicting burnout. Analysis of the data revealed a moderate level of occupational stress as well as burn out in the given sample. Various job stressors correlated positively with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization component of burn out and negatively with the personal accomplishment component. Role ambiguity and unreasonable group and political pressure were found to be the two best predictors of various components of burnout. Strenuous working condition and intrinsic impoverishment emerged as the third best predictor of emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment respectively. Overall the findings suggest that teaching is a stressful occupation and teachers are at risk for developing burnout syndrome and subjectively defined job stressors such as role ambiguity, unreasonable group pressure may play an important role in it.

KEYWORDS: Emotion; Stress; Occupational groups; engineering; Politics; Pressure; Data Collection; Teaching; Human; Male; Adult

References: 25

Job anxiety as a moderator variable in the relationship between job characteristics and individual as well as organizational outcomes.
Parmar NR., Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar
2001 Jan-Jul; 27(1-2): 75-81

Job Enrichment is based on the assumption that both job satisfaction and motivation are the function of job content. The job characteristics model for job enrichment emphasizes five core dimensions viz., skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy and feedback, which are very crucial in determining motivation. In the present study an attempt is made to find out how and in what manner the input-output relationship between core dimensions of the job and outcome variables like motivation, job satisfaction etc. are influenced by job anxiety. A questionnaire was administered to a sample of 200 supervisors from public and private sector organizations. Data were analysed by using correlation method. The results clearly show that there is no direct relationship between core dimensions of the job and outcome variables. The relationship is moderated by the job anxiety.

KEYWORDS: Anxiety; Individuality; Job Satisfaction; Motivation; Organizations; Private Sector; Public Sector; Data Collection; Human; Male; Female; Relative Value Scale

References: 12

Perceived organizational change with reference to occupational stress: a study of employees in private sector
Ahmad A., Millat College, Darbhanga
2001 Jan-Jul; 27(1-2): 83-88

The present study is an attempt to assess the employees’ perceived reactions towards organizational change with reference to occupational stress. The sample consisted of four hundred sixteen (N=416) employees who were engaged in making electronic gadgets like TVs, VCPs etc. they were randomly drawn from the various electronic manufacturing companies of NOIDA, (U.P). The data were analyzed by multiple regression analysis. The results indicate that four dimensions/stressors of occupational stress, namely, ‘responsibility of persons’, ‘intrinsic impoverishment’; ‘low status’ and ‘un-profitability’ are found as predictors of employees’ reactions towards organizational change (OC), although, all the job incumbents have shown favourable inclination to organizational change (OC).

KEYWORDS: Private Sector/MA; Stress; Organizational innovation; Occupations; Employee Grievances; Workload; Electronics; Data Interpretation, Statistical; Human; Male; Female; Adult

References: 16

Effects of gender upon attitudes and behavioral intentions toward the incest survivor
Resweber PJ; Fish JM., St. John’s University, New York, USA
2001 Jan-Jul; 27(1-2): 89-107

Subjects read vignettes describing the incestuous abuse of a child by an older sibling. Sibling genders were varied creating a 2x2x2 model (Victim’s x Abuser’s x Subject’s Gender). It was predicted that students would be more rejecting whenever reading a vignette describing a male victim and more accepting of female victims. Instead, only those students reading about the abuse of a female by her older brother were found to endorse more positive behavioural intentions than other students. No other differences were found to be significant. In further analysis, Ajzen and Fishbein’s Theory of Planned Behavior was able to account for more of the variance in expressed behavioural intention than other previously considered variables.

KEYWORDS: Attitude; Behavioral Symptoms; Child Abuse; Child Behavior; Student; Gender Identity; Incest/PX; Survivors; Human; Male; Female; Adolescence

References: 29

Sexual harassment experiences of the women working in an airline
Iqbal S; Kamal A. National Institute of Psychology Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan
2001 Jan-Jul; 27(1-2): 109-120

The study deals with women’s experiences of sexual harassment in an airline. It is Pakistan’s largest airline, which has a worldwide schedule of flights. The basic purpose was to explore the difference in sexual harassment experience among Ground and Air hostesses. The instrument namely "Sexual Harassment Experience Questionnaire" (SHEQ), developed by Kamal and Tariq (1997) was used. The questionnaire contained 35 items divided into three subscales (Gender harassment, Unwanted Sexual Attention, Sexual Coercion). The result indicates that there is a nonsignificant difference in sexual harassment experience between two groups regarding different variables (e.g., age, experience, job-status, and marital-status) of the women, although all women had experiences of sexual harassment at one time or other. The present research finding is consistent with some previous researches.

KEYWORDS: Sexual Harassment; Air Movements; Workplace; Women, working; Data Collection; Data Interpretation, Statistical; Human; Female; Adult Pakistan

References: 28

The assessment of everyday skills: Some Pointers on gender differences in Indian Children
Laynar J; Hertley S; Lansdown R., Centre for International Child Health Institute of Child Health, University College, London
2001 Jan-Jul; 27(1-2): 121-126

The study looks at gender differences in everyday skill in children aged 5 to 10 living in Tamil Nadu. Data were collected from focus groups and questionnaires. Although it is acknowledged that boys and girls develop on a similar trajectory in many ways, It was clear from responses from parents, and to a lesser extent from teachers, that both expectations and observable day to day activities vary as a function of child’s sex. Given the need for locally relevant instruments to measure child development and the current interest in adaptive behaviour, these results should be taken into consideration when any new adaptive behaviour scale is planned.

KEYWORDS: Gender Identity; Data Collection; Behaviour; Child Psychology; Adaptation, Psychological; Adolescent Behaviour; Cultural Characteristics; Human; Male; Female; Child

References: 19

Adolescents perceived social norms and values: a calcutta based study
Deb S; Mitra K; Mukherjee I., University of Calcutta, Calcutta
2001 Jan-Jul; 27(1-2): 127-135

The present study made an attempt to understand the attitude and perceptions of adolescent girls toward some social norms and values. A total of 130 adolescent girls studying in class XII standard were selected randomly from seven English medium schools, four from north and three from south Calcutta. Although most of the girls do not have any reservation against school and family disciplines, a large number of them (37.6 percent) expressed their unhappiness about school disciplines. So far as friendship with the opposite sex is concerned, more than two third students (67.6 percent) stated that it is healthy. In this regard, south Calcutta students differed significantly with their counterparts in north Calcutta (p<0.01). A change in values has been observed and it seems that today’s adolescents are more open about sexuality. Interestingly, regarding the type of marriage, most of them (69.2 percent) clearly stated that nothing specific could be said as to which type of marriage, love or arranged, is good and/or last for a long time. Smoking and drinking by women is not a permissible behaviour as remarked by 51.5 percent girl students. On the contrary, a small number of them(10.7)percent) felt that it is necessary for social status and business matters while others remained indifferent in this regard. A few of them (10.7 percent) also mentioned of gender equality. The findings suggest that reproductive health and value oriented education should be introduced in the educational institutions.

KEYWORDS: Attitude; Perception; Social Perception; Social Conditions; Adolescent Behaviour; Sex Differentiation; Data Collection; Data Interpretation, Statistical; Human; Female; Adolscence

References: 9

Type A behaviour pattern and leadership style
Singh S; Singh R. M D University, Rohtak
2001 Jan-Jul; 27(1-2): 137-141

The present investigation aims at studying the effect of Type A behaviour pattern on the leadership style. The sample consisted of 120 managers from four different subsidiaries of General Insurance Company i.e. Oriental Insurance, National Insurance, United Insurance and New India Assurance. Jenkins Activity Survey (1979) and Sinha’s Leadership style scale (1980) were administered to study the relationship between TABP and leadership style. The study dealt with three different types of managers, Viz, Type A, Type X and Type B and six leadership styles i.e., participative, bureaucratic, authoritarian, nurturant, nurturant task and task oriented leadership style. The TABP was varied through selection. Out of 120 managers, 59 managers belonging to two different poles and middle area of dimension were retained. Those who scored above + 17SD were categorised as Type a managers as the higher the score, the more the individual was type A. Those who scored below-I SD were categorised in to Type B behaviour pattern category. Those who scored +0.25 SD were placed in to Type X behaviour pattern category. The effect of Type A behaviour pattern was tested on six different leadership styles by applying ANOVA. Analysis reavealed the significant effect of Type A behaviour pattern on participative, nurturant, nurturant task and bureaucratic leadership styles. These were negatively related, in the sense that, higher the Type A lesser were the participative, nurturant and nurturant task. The pattern suggests that personality type may be related to leadership type such as Type A-B and Mc Gregor’s Type X-Y.

KEYWORDS: Behaviour; Leadership; Personality Development; Relative Value Scales; Professional Corporations; Data Collection; Stress; Organizations; Human; Male; Female; Adult

References: 11

A comparative study of the personality characteristics, motives and work values of the autocratic and democratic executives.
Singh S; Kaur R. Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar
2001 Jan-Jul; 27(1-2): 143-149

The purpose of the investigation was to identify the personality characteristics, motives and work values of autocratic and democratic executives. Twenty eight different variables were reliably measured on 325 executives. Three analyses were undertaken (1) comparisons of the upper 30 percent (N=98) of the total sample with highest scores on autocratic and democratic management styles; (2) correlational analysis, and (3) Factor analysis. All the analyses indicated that autocratic and democratic executives differ quantitatively as well as qualitatively. Furthermore, the results of factor analysis showed that autocratic and democratic styles are multidimensional constructs. Caveats to the present findings were considered, and a few hypothesis for independent verification have been proposed.

KEYWORDS: Comparative study; Motivation; Personality assessment; Work; Organizational case studies; Quality of life; Factor analysis, Statistical; Human; Male; Female; Adult Data Collection; Data Interpretation, Statistical

References: 26

Influence of experience indifferent work schedules on job satisfaction of nurses
Madgaonkar JS; D’Souza L; Veena V; Poornima ML. University of Mysore, Mysore
2001 Jan-Jul; 27(1-2): 151-155

The present study reports influence of experience in shiftwork and shift schedules in nurses on job satisfaction. Job satisfaction instrument developed by Mishra, Tiwari, and Pandey (1977) was administered to female nurses with short, moderate, and long years of experience with shift schedules. Results revealed that experience in shiftwork significantly influenced the job satisfaction, longer the experience in shiftwork, more was the job satisfaction. Marital status, age and type of organization did not influence the job satisfaction of nurses. Recent advances in improving shift workers, health and tolerance to shiftwork are also discussed.

KEYWORDS: Job Satisfaction; Nursing Services/SN; Work Schedule Tolerance/PX; Organization; Marital Status/CL; Data Collection, Data Interpretation, Statistical; Human; Female; Adult

References: 14

Occupational level and job satisfaction: A comparative study of Public and Private sector organisation
Joshi G., Saurastra University, Rajkot
2001 Jan-Jul; 27(1-2): 157-161

This research was an investigation to study and compare the extent of job satisfaction among the employees of public and private sector organizations and to find out the relationship between job satisfaction and occupational level in both the sectors. A sample of 60 each was taken from both the sectors. The hierarchical status was represented at three levels i.e. Managers, Supervisors and Workers (20 each). The Brayfield Rothe Scale of Job Satisfaction was used to collect the data. The main findings are: (a) The extent of job satisfaction is not found significantly higher in the private sector organizations as compared to public sector organization. (b) A significant difference in the extent of job satisfaction of managers, supervisors and workers has been found in the public sector organization. (C) There is not significant difference in the extent of job satisfaction of manager, supervisors, and workers in the public sector organisation.

KEYWORDS: Occupational Group; Job Satisfaction/OG; Comparative Study; Private Sector; Public Sector; Organizations; Data Collection; Human; Male; Female; Adult

References: 11

Psychosocial adjustment in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
Malhi P; Singhi P. Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh
2001 Jan-Jul; 27(1-2): 163-168

The study aimed at assessing the psychosocial adjustment of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and contrast it with a matched group of healthy children. Fifteen consecutive children (8 to 15 years) referred for psychology services in the Department of Pediatrics of a tertiary care hospital, diagnosed with ADHD (DSM-IV) were matched to healthy controls. Psychosocial adaptation was assessed at one point of time on 3 measures: Children’s Self Concept Scale, Pre-Adolescent Adjustment Scale, and Childhood Psychopathology Measurement Schedule. Results indicated that as compared to controls, ADHD Children had significantly lower self-Esteem, poorer adjustment and higher psychopathology. It is concluded that children with ADHD have several psychosocial adjustment problems in addition to their core clinical symptoms and these also need to be targeted for management.

KEYWORDS: Psychological Phenomena and Process; Psychopathology; Pediatrics; Child psychology; Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/PX; Human; Male; Female; Child; Data Collection

Parental inducement of self-regulation, strategy use and attribution of success/failure among school children
Sinha SP; Kumari P., Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Agra
2001 Jan-Jul; 27(1-2): 169-174

The present study examines the relationship between children’s perception of parental inducement of self-regulation, strategy use and attribution of success/failure among 80 seventh grade children. Hindi version of parental inducement of Self-Regulation Questionnaire, Strategy use Questionnaire, and success/Failure Scale were the tools. High positive correlation coefficients were found between parental inducement of self-regulation scores and use of deep processing strategy; parental inducement of self regulation scores and success attribution to controllable factors. Negative correlation coefficients were found between parental inducement of self regulation scores and shallow processing strategy use scores; between parental inducement of self regulation scores and shallow processing strategy use scores; between parental inducement of self regulation scores and uncontrollable factors for failure attribution.

KEYWORDS: Parent-Child Relations; Schools; Self Administration; Self-Examination; Human; Male; Female; Child

References: 23

Adjustment, Risk taking behaviour and absenteeism
Sehgal R; Malhotra S; Bhatia P., M D University, Rohtak
2001 Jan-Jul; 27(1-2): 175-180

In order to study the relationship between the level of adjustment, risk taking behaviour and absenteeism of textile workers, 2x3 factorial design was employed. A sample of 90 subjects was drawn, below the supervisor rank. The workers were categorized into low and high adjusted groups on the basis of their adjustment scores after administering adjustment inventory on them. By administering risk taking questionnaire, they were classified into low, moderate and high risk taking behaviour groups. The absenteeism data were collected from the official records. Results were statistically analysed by employing two way ANOVA and t-test. Results showed that level of adjustment and level of risk taking behaviour affected absenteeism rate of the workers both independently as well as in an interactive way upto some extent in certain cases.

KEYWORDS: Absenteeism; Adjustment Disorders/PX; Behavior, Addictive; Risk Adjustment; Risk-Taking; Industry; Human; Male; Female; Adult, Data collection Data Interpretation, Statistical

References: 18

Effect of residential self-employment training on some personality variables
Padakannaya P; Santhosh KS. University of Mysore, Mysore
2001 Jan-Jul; 27(1-2): 181-186

The present study was carried out to see the impact of self-employment training programme of unemployed on Locus of Control, Self-Esteem, Alienation, and Purpose-in Life. A group of 38 youth, mostly from rural background under going vocational training in a residential set up the emphasis on developing achievement motivation and confidence, was tested before and after training. A similar group of youth not undergoing any training formed the control group. The results, analyzed by ANCOVA, indicated that there was significant effect of training programme on Locus of Control, Self Esteem Alienation and Purpose in Life.

KEYWORDS: Personality; Personality Tests; Residential Facilities; Employment; Self Concept; Motivation; Vocational Education; Human; Male; Female; Adult; Data Collection, Data Interpretation, Statistical

References: 12

Motivational correlates of entrepreneurs in small-scale industries.
Alam MR. Veer Kuner Singh University, Arrah
2001 Jan-Jul; 27(1-2): 187-190

In the present investigation an attempt has been made to study the effects of need for power, need for achievement and centrality of work on entrepreneurial success in small scale industry. 80 entrepreneurs were selected through stratified random sampling technique (40 successful and 40 unsuccessful) from the Adityapur Industrial Complex located at Jamshedpur. It was hypothesized that successful entrepreneurs would be high on needs for power, achievement and work centrality than the unsuccessful entrepreneurs. The results supported the hypotheses and were in keeping with previous findings. The entrepreneurs of healthy units showed higher needs for power, achievement and work centrality than those of the unhealthy units. The needs for power, achievement and work centrality had contributed to the success of these units. The successful entrepreneurs who had high needs for power, achievement and work centrality showed greater growth and development in their entrepreneurial activities through their influence exercised over behaviour of co-workers, energizing assert and work orientation to the units than the unsuccessful entrepreneurs.

KEYWORDS: Motivation; Industry; Entrepreneurship; Work; Behaviour; Data Collection; Human; Male; Female; Adult; Data Collection; Data Interpretation, Statistical

References: 12

Small scale enterprises-influence of locus of control on entrepreneurship development
Ganesan R; Kaur D; Mathur P. Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi
2001 Jan-Jul; 27(1-2): 191-196

Small scale industries rely upon the entrepreneurs who run it and their characteristics which enable them to acquire the entrepreneurial skills. Inter-relationships between the socio-economic variables with the locus of control reveal the information to unanswered questions particularly in the entrepreneurship development plank. Thus they study is an attempt to find out the locus of control to determine the success of an enterprise.

KEYWORDS: Entrepreneurship; Socio-Economic Factors; Information Storage and Retrieval; Locus Control Region; Human; Male; Female; Adult

References: 8

Development of a measure of developmental tasks for primary school age child

Pervez S; Anis-ul-Haque M., National Institute of Psychology Quaid-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan
2001 Jan-Jul; 27(1-2): 197-204  

An attempt has been made to develop an indigenous instrument for objectively measuring the developmental tasks of primary school age children. The pilot study was carried out on 100 subjects while the main study was conducted on 288 subjects, belonging to urban area of Islamabad. The initial item pool consisted of 56 items. After psychometric evaluation a scale consisting of 46 items/tasks was developed. The scale holds a promising instrument for measuring the developmental task of children from 5-10 years of age. However, it has limitation of being developed only for the urban population of Islamabad. It can be used by teachers, parents and counselors by interviewing a competent person who knows the child and is willing to give the information honestly. Further studies on large sample from other urban setting would enhance its generalizeability.

KEYWORDS: Schools; Developmental Biology; Psychometrics; Evaluation, Study; Population; Human; Male Female; Child Pakistan

References: 12

Development of a scale to Assess Pilot attitude towards cockpit automation
Singh IL; Deaton JE; Parasuraman R. Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (INDIA). Embry Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, Florida, USA Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C. USA
2001 Jan-Jul; 27(1-2): 205-211

In the present study a scale was developed for measuring attitudes toward cockpit automation. This scale had 3 parts: the first part of the scale contained biographical information of pilot such as age, rank, education, flying hours and the list of automated systems used during, flight, the second part consisted 10 items related to general attitude toward cockpit automation and the third part had 20 items related to several categories of automated systems like design, reliability, Flight management system input, output-feedback, skills training, monitoring and procedures, workload, an overall impressions. All the statements of the scale were constructed using Likert type items which varied from strongly disagree to strongly agree i.e. from 1 to 5. The scale was administered to 163 pilots at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University. Their age ranged from 24 to 49 years. Mean scores of pilots showed that the majority favoured advance automation in the cockpit and agreed that pilots were controllers rather than monitors. Conversely, pilots had lowered preference for flying advanced automated aircraft and they claimed not to rely on automation. The scores of part 3 were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) which revealed the presence of six factors with eigan values greater than 1. These factors wee named as workload, design, skills, feedback reliability and self-confidence. The reliability of the six factors were also computed using coefficient alpha which ranged from. 75 to 98. The overall reliability for the scale was .91. In the early stages of research on a hypothesized measure of a construct, reliability of .70 or higher are recommended. By these criteria, the attitude toward cockpit automation scale demonstrates satisfactory reliability.